Pilkington Optitherm™ S1A low emissivity glass meets all current requirements for modern low emissivity glass.
Thanks to its low emissivity coating that provides a Ug-value of 1.0 W/m²K, Pilkington Optitherm™ S1A is already known for its ability to reduce heating costs and avoid energy loss.
This recent upgrade optimises these proven qualities to provide additional benefits. Improved light transmission and total solar heat transmittance (g-value) now enhance room comfort by reducing window draughts, which ensures evenly distributed heat throughout.
Saving energy has become an increasingly important issue and in that area Pilkington Optitherm™ S1A makes a huge contribution. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) output is reduced, helping to protect the environment, whilst the energy efficiency it offers, reduces heating costs.
Pilkington Optitherm™ S1A offers following benefits:
reduces heating costs and actively helps to increase well-being;
better use of the living space by avoiding cold drafts from windows;
energy efficient way to reduce heating bills and environmental impact through reduced CO2 emissions;
enhances internal living environment through high viewing transparency with 64% light transmittance and 40% total solar heat transmittance (within a 4/12/4/12/4 IGU construction);
Ug-value of 1.0 W/m²K in a double-glazed unit, in accordance with EN standards;
available in a wide range of products for various applications;
available in combination with Pilkington Optilam™ and Pilkington Optiphon™ for impact resistance, increased security or improved noise reduction.
ld of the manufacturing process, as normally occurs in the early stages of any new production technology.
Some changes were major, and were a direct consequence of the earlier limited understanding of important technical issues. At one stage, the entire post-assembly part of the production process was redesigned and rebuilt, reducing the number of heating steps in the process from two to one (Figure 4).
This became possible through the development of a method for making a high temperature vacuum seal around the pump out tube using a demountable all-metal evacuation cup ( and Figure 5). Although very costly and time consuming, these changes greatly improved the viability of the technology by halving the post-assembly manufacturing time and significantly simplifying the manufacturing process.
A feature of this commercial development was the effectiveness of the interactions between NSG and the University. Both parties in the collaboration were completely open to each other about the information that was generated and the issues that needed to be addressed. The University’s research program continued to provide new information of relevance to the product development at NSG.
Much of the University’s work was stimulated by issues that emerged from the production process. For its part, NSG was unshakable in its resolve to make the project succeed, even when significant technical challenges arose that required major changes in production processes.
In hindsight, the decision by NSG to commercialise a VIG product must be regarded as very courageous. NSG committed to this goal at a time when many other companies took the view that commercial development of the VIG concept was too risky and costly.
As it turned out, the costs involved were much larger than originally anticipated, and the technological challenges were also much greater. Despite concerns about the viability on this enterprise, NSG chose to work these issues through, and over time this technology has become one of the company’s premium products.
The demonstration of the technical and commercial feasibility of VIG stimulated several other organisations to commence work on VIG, leading to many publications and patents.
2001 to present
The past 16 years have been a period of consolidation of VIG technology. Several million VIG units have been manufactured by NSG, and have shown excellent reliability in many types of building, Several major research studies have been undertaken at other academic institutions, in government laboratories and by other companies. VIG products made by other manufacturers are in the market or under development. There has been extensive relevant publication and patenting.
Current commercially available VIGs using annealed glass can have centre-of-glazing Uvalues as low as 0.6 W m-2 K-1 in a structure 10 mm thick. VIGs are also being used in hybrid glazings and laminated assemblies. The International Standards Organisation (ISO) is developing Standards for this technology.
This work is being undertaken by Working Group 10 (Glass in building – Product considerations – Vacuum glass) of ISO Technical Committee 160, Sub-committee 1. Part 1 of a draft Standard for measurement of the thermal insulating properties of VIG is in the process of ratification. Work has commenced on Part 2 relating to temperatureinduced effects in VIG.
Although VIG is now a well established technology, there is considerable scope for further development on many aspects of its design, manufacture and marketing. Several of these are listed below. Those currently under active development or consideration are indicated by an asterisk (*)..
VIG made with tempered glass* offers the prospect of higher levels of thermal insulation, and broader areas of application. A major challenge for this design approach is the development of a relatively low temperature edge seal. Departures from planarity of the tempered glass sheets need to be accommodated so that the mechanical load due to atmospheric pressure is uniformly distributed over the pillars.
Performance improvements are also likely with innovative pillar designs, including pillars made from thermally insulating materials*, high strength materials*, and by melting small areas on the glass sheets*. Pillars are under development with low friction bearing surfaces*, and different geometries*, that facilitate a small amount of relative lateral movement of the glass sheets.
It is likely that the pillar separation in current VIGs with annealed glass can be increased*, resulting in improved thermal insulation,
VIGs with a flexible edge seal* would experience very low stresses and bending under temperature differentials. However, in such designs the pillars must slide repetitively across the glass. Because of the high stresses in the glass sheets near the pillars, the author considers it unlikely that this type of edge seal will prove viable.
There are many alternative possibilities for making the edge seal, including low temperature solder glass *, lead free solder glass*, and metal*. All currently available polymer materials are far too permeable for this application. In the author’s opinion, this is unlikely to change.
There are also many different design possibilities for the evacuation port of the device*.
VIG production technology is sufficiently well understood that a continuous manufacturing process can now be implemented*. Although relatively capital intensive, such an approach would enable larger numbers of VIGs to be made, and this could result in significant cost reductions in the product.
In principle, it is possible to form the edge seal in the VIG within a highly evacuated space, eliminating the need for a pump out port. Challenges in this approach include bubbling of the molten solder glass, vacuum degradation due to outgassing of the hot internal surfaces after sealing, and avoiding bending of the glass sheets in the edge region.
The history of VIG is quite unusual for a technological development. There was an extraordinarily long period (75 years) between the initial patent describing the concept and its first realisation in the laboratory. This was followed by a relatively short period (8 years) of research, development and technology transfer, leading to the launch of the first commercial VIG product.
Over the subsequent 20 years, the development of the technology has continued, although most currently available products have much in common with early commercial designs. In addition, although sales of VIG have steadily increased and the product has exhibited high reliability in practical installations, only a few manufacturers are currently active in the field.
NSG is in the process of completing a significant expansion of its VIG manufacturing capability. In addition, there is currently a high level of interest in the technology, both at the research level, and in product development programs by other manufacturers.
It is therefore not unreasonable to expect that the next few years will see more manufacturers entering the VIG market, and substantially increased sales volumes. Should this occur, new and possibly better performing VIG products made using different processes will become available, and the cost of VIG will decrease.
The capital investment for a VIG manufacturing facility will always be greater than for a conventional IG plant of comparable capacity. The unit area cost of VIG is therefore always likely to be greater than for conventional IG. In large volume manufacture, however, materials cost should dominate, and the cost differential between the two technologies need not necessarily be large.
The capability of VIG to achieve high levels of thermal insulation, the high reliability afforded by the hermetic edge seal, and the very small thickness of the structure, are likely to make VIG technology an increasingly attractive choice in the market for high performance thermally insulating glazing.
VIG would not exist as it is today without the many contributions by the author’s students at the University of Sydney, and his colleagues in the University’s School of Physics, at NSG, and in other research laboratories. The author dedicates this paper to Stephen Robinson, whose student project led to the first practical VIG samples, and Hideo Kawahara, whose vision, dedication and tenacity enabled this technology to be commercialised successfully. Sadly, neither is alive today to reflect on the significance of their achievements.
1. R E Collins, A C Fischer-Cripps and J-Z Tang, Solar Energy 49, 333-50 (1992)
2. R E Collins et al., Building and Environment 30, 459-92 (1995)
3. R E Collins and T M Simko, Solar Energy 62, 189-213 (1998)
4. A Zoller, German Patent No. 387655 (1913)
5. S J Robinson and R E Collins, ISES World Congress, Int. Solar Energy Soc., Kobe, Japan (1989)
6. T M Simko, A C Fischer-Cripps and R E Collins, Solar Energy 63, 1-21 (1988)
7. C J Dey et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 69, 39-2947 (1998)
8. N Ng, R E Collins and C So, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A21, 1776-83 (2003)
9. C Kocer and R E Collins, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 84, 2585-93 (2001)
10. A C Fischer-Cripps and R E Collins, Building and Environment 30, 29-40 (1995)
11. Q-C Zhang et al., Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 61-71 (1997)
12. N Ng, R E Collins and M Lenzen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A20, 1384-9 (2002)
AluK will be revealing a brand new 70mm window system at the FIT Show – complete with pre-inserted gaskets.
This is thought to be the first time that an aluminium window system has been available in the UK with the gaskets pre-inserted – a move with AluK estimates could halve the time it takes customers to manufacture a window.
Managing Director Russell Yates says that it could be a gamechanger in the market – bringing aluminium into line with PVC-U and giving fabricators the opportunity to massively increase their margins and their competitiveness.
He says: “The AluK C70S will be pitched directly at the mid-rise commercial market where there is still plenty of potential for growth in aluminium. It is the new big brother of our iconic 58BW window system and incorporates everything which we know fabricators and installers love about the 58 – but with even faster, simpler fabrication and much improved performance.”
AluK’s specialist design team have created a great looking, cost effective new window which satisfies with ease all the key thermal, acoustic and performance criteria laid down by commercial specifiers.
For instance, thermal performance of the C70S is between 1.0W/m2K and 1.3W/m2K, a 50mm glazing option allows for improved acoustics and a max sash weight of 150kg for tilt before turn windows, and wind and water tightness levels are class leading – even with large span window openings.
It also of course PAS24 accredited for inward and opening windows, making it suitable for all projects requiring Approved Document Q.
AluK’s Managing Director Russell Yates adds: “We can’t wait to showcase this new window to customers at the exhibition ready for its official launch later this summer. It will be the platform on which we build an entire new range of products, giving our customers the same benefits of system integration which they already enjoy with the 58BW.
“It also has the massive advantage that it shares the sightlines and many of the parts and tooling required to manufacture the 58BW so customers will easily be able to add the C70S to their range and really make an impact in the commercial market without significantly increasing their stockholding.”
Visitors to FIT in 2017 will remember that AluK really led the aluminium charge last time around and it plans to do that all over again. As well as the C70S and 58BW windows, the stand will be packed with all of AluK’s most popular products for customers operating in the trade, retail and commercial sectors. There will be a wide choice of sliding and bi-fold doors, outdoor living products, curtain walling and commercial entrance doors, along with plenty of friendly, expert advice on how to get started in aluminium or how to take the next big step.
When a pane of glass in a window breaks spontaneously, the cause can often appear to be a mystery. Phil Brown, European regulatory marketing manager at Pilkington United Kingdom Limited, examines what causes glass breakages and explains how those across the construction supply chain can mitigate the risk.Why do glass breakages occur?
Thermal overstressing remains a common cause of glass fractures. Product knowledge training courses feature thermal safety as a topic and there are a number of calculation programs available that can assess the risk during the specification stage. Despite this, instances of thermal glass breakages still occur – so what causes them?
During the installation process, it is common to install glass by retaining the edges of the pane within a frame with a gasket or glazing bead. The area of glass exposed to solar radiation absorbs heat, rises in temperature and expands. In comparison, the edges of the glass, which are shielded from solar radiation, remain cooler than the exposed area. The resulting differential expansion (the difference between the hottest and coolest part of the glass) causes tensile stress at the edge of the glass pane. If this exceeds the breakage strength of the glass, a thermal fracture will result.
Thermal fractures tend to start from the edge of the glass and at 90 degrees to it. For this reason, it is often difficult to identify a thermal fracture without deglazing the system, as the evidence can be hidden within the rebate of the frame.
What increases the risk of thermal fracture?
There are many factors that can influence the risk of thermal overstressing in glass. These include where the glass is located, its orientation, whether it is in a vertical or sloping position, the frame type used, to the absorption of the glass and the size of the pane. All of these factors can influence the temperature difference between the centre and edge of the glass, affecting the risk of thermal breakage. For example, indoor shading devices such as blinds or curtains can increase the temperature of the glass by reflecting solar radiation back through the glass.
The condition of the edges of the pane of glass is also extremely important. As the tensile stresses are located at the edges, the breakage strength of the glass is generally related to the extent and position of flaws in the edge. Damaged edges can significantly reduce the thermal resistance of glass; to avoid issues later, glass with damaged edges should not be installed.
How can the risk be mitigated?
As is in the case with any project, communication is key. As a project progresses, the specification of glass can change. Unless the implications of these changes are taken into account, however, breakages can occur. For this reason, communication between architects, specifiers, suppliers and installers, as well as an understanding of how glass behaves in different settings, is crucial.
Most glass manufacturers offer an assessment service for predicting the thermal safety of glazed installations subjected to solar radiation, usually on the completion of a checklist. Some manufacturers even make the calculation programs available to customers. For example, a thermal stress calculator is available to customers signed-up to My Pilkington™, our on-line business resource.
If the result of a thermal safety check shows that glass is at risk, the most common solution is to change the glass specification to a heat treated form (e.g. toughened) of the selected glass. Toughened glass can typically resist a temperature differential of more than 200°C, which is much greater than that of annealed glass. If a heat treated version is unavailable or impractical for a specific application, then it may be possible to specify an alternative product or change the design.
Assessment methods vary across Europe, but technical committee CEN/TC129/WG8 (Glass in Building – Mechanical Strength) is developing a European standard which could see publication as early as next year. This can only help further raise awareness of the importance of thermal safety checks to design-out potential problems during the specification stage, helping to reduce the number of occurrences of thermal fractures on site.
Discovering that a pane of glass is at risk of thermal overstressing and in need of treatment too late in a project can result in considerable unforeseen costs. However, the consequences of replacing a broken IGU that has fractured in-situ are worse still.
Today’s advanced glazing solutions have given specifiers and fabricators the power to create ever more visually impressive and high-performance windows and façades. With this power, however, comes a responsibility to ensure that buildings and occupants will be completely safe in every environmental eventuality.
From Small-Scale Campus Venues to Large Professional Sports Complexes, Emerging Technology Delivers Accuracy Along with Time and Money Savings.
From preconstruction through final inspection, 3-D scanning and measurement is an integral element of architecture, engineering and construction. It’s an innovative solution that continues to gain momentum on job sites for its ability to collect highly accurate information in a very short period of time.
While the technology behind 3-D laser scanning has been around for years, the building and architectural metal industries are just beginning to tap into its potential, particularly for stadium and athletic facility construction. According to KPMG’s Global Construction Survey from 2016, the industry is starting to embrace this technology, and just over 20 percent of respondents said they’re changing their business models to accommodate its rapid growth.
As a leading national provider of architectural railings, Trex Commercial Products has nearly three decades of experience manufacturing ornamental railing systems and working with architects, general contractors and glaziers. During this time, we’ve seen several rising challenges within the metal architecture industry – including shorter building cycles, shrinking budgets and the need to produce accurate data at a moment’s notice.
3-D scanning technology offers tremendous benefits for both the client and the surveyor. In the short-term, it provides accurate measurements for design and construction, while in the long-term, it provides clients with valuable survey information that can aid in planning future maintenance or reconfiguration of the space.
What is 3-D Laser Scanning?
Laser scanning, also called high definition surveying (HDS), is a method of high-accuracy mapping or reality capture that uses lasers to quickly capture complete field detail of an entire building construction project. These lasers scan or sweep across objects, measuring millions of points with XYZ values. The result is an accurate 3-D depiction of the scanned building site called a point cloud that can be converted to AutoCAD, MicroStation and several other design formats.
High definition surveying offers a wide array of benefits, including decreased project costs, faster turnaround, improved safety, reduced rework and higher quality data capture.
Speed, Accuracy & Consistency – 3-D laser scanning enables a faster project turnaround and accurate means of collecting millions of measurable data points in seconds. In addition, measurement scanning can be completed without significant interruption of surrounding activities – a major benefit when working on compressed deadlines.
Valuable Data for Design – The richness of the data from 3-D scanning gives clients peace of mind that measurements are accurate and thorough. Even after project completion, building management can have access to virtually every detail of the building’s design, all of which can be valuable for future purposes.
Improved Safety – Laser scanning is hands off, making it unobtrusive and safer. Also, the technology enables project managers to obtain measurements for difficult, hard-to-reach and sometimes dangerous areas of a building site – a process that could potentially take days, and bring other on-site work to a halt.
Cost Advantages – Imagine the time and money savings on a project that requires zero remakes. By exposing any inaccuracies early in the process, 3-D scanning allows you to quickly resolve them before they became larger issues during construction and installation.
From healthcare settings to educational facilities and major athletic arenas, this emerging technology is scalable and can be used for smaller venues as well as large-scale projects.
For large professional sports complexes, 3-D scanning allows Trex Commercial Products to create ornamental railings that enhance accessibility and safety, contributing to the overall fan experience, while also complementing each facility’s unique design and architecture.
Using the point cloud data captured on-site, Trex Commercial Products created a 3-D model of U.S. Bank Stadium.
In addition, 3-D laser scanning services can help identify the exact locations and dimensions of structural elements like columns, seating, stairs and risers – valuable information for stadium modifications, including extending railing barriers for fan protection or upgrades to VIP suite sections.
HDS can also prove beneficial for universities and hospitals to museums and hotels. For instance, Trex Commercial Products utilized a 3-D laser scanning system to create railing for a spiral staircase at Colorado State University Health and Medical Center. Given the tight deadline and complexity of the work, the technology allowed us to accurately – and quickly – model the unique shape and contours of the staircase.
3-D laser scanning provided Trex Commercial Products with accurate dimensions that lead to swifter and easier installation.
Embracing the potential of new technology like high-definition surveying provides a tremendous competitive advantage. While only a small percentage of companies in the industry are implementing this advanced tool, it allows us to participate in some of the largest commercial railing projects in the country. By utilizing 3-D modeling, we’re able to provide a compliant product, in a cost-effective manner that accommodates any project’s requirements.
New and unique oversized XXL satin glass up to 7250 x 3210 mm (285″ x 126″ inches) for impressive seamless façades, oversized cubicles, never ending partitions or screens, outdoor or indoor.
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From this moment forward, the canopy covering the route to the tram platform of Utrecht Central Station is being cleaned by a robot.
Utrecht station is the largest combined bus, tram and train station in the Netherlands. More than 170,000 passengers travel to and from Utrecht every day. Robotic technology makes sure that cleaning the exterior is done safely, efficiently and without any nuisance to the commuters.
A lot of work went into it. Director of KITE Robotics, Stefan Spanjer, is happy with the results in Utrecht. “We developed the robot according to the specific wishes and demands of the client and came to a terrific result. We thank the City of Utrecht and Nederlandse Spoorwegen for their confidence. The city sets an example by thinking about efficient and effective cleaning of a complex construction at an early stage in development. The robot cleans buildings under safe conditions, improving everyone’s living and working conditions and saving costs at the same time.”
Utrecht Central Station is the heart of public transport in the Netherlands and acts as the entry hub for the entire city. Commuters transfer to buses, bikes, trams and trains and vice versa. The city thinks it is important for Utrecht to be hospitable and safely accessible.
Alexander Schütte of the city explains: “The commuter is central to our philosophy. With this solution they are not hindered by hydraulic platforms or scaffolding and can travel comfortable from point A to point B. We did not just realize a quality connection from the station hall to the tram platform, but can keep it clean as well. We are very pleased with the automatic cleaning robot which provides an excellent solution within the complex environment of the station.”
SCHOTT ROBAX® Glass visit at ISH: 11.-15.03.2019, Frankfurt/Germany, Hall 9.2, Booth D10.
First of all the most important news: you can experience a wide variety of impressive SCHOTT ROBAX® NEWS live at the ISH 2019 for five days.
STUNNING NEWS – thanks to a wide variety of new products for both wood burning and gas fireplaces.
COLOURFUL NEWS – find out more about the latest decoration possibilities for coated ROBAX® IR Max fire viewing panels.
STYLISH NEWS – discover trendy design solutions for gas fireplaces.
PARTY NEWS – join us celebrating 40 years of serial production of ROBAX®.
At our booth party on Tuesday, March 12th 2019 from 5.00 pm on
We are looking forward to seeing you.
SCHOTT ROBAX® is another SCHOTT brand that is on the road to success. Over 100 million ROBAX® fire viewing panels have been sold in 40 years, making SCHOTT a leading manufacturer of ceramic fireplace glass.
ROBAX® is IN FRONT. With our remarkable variety of products and services, we team up with fireplace manufacturers to take advantage of market opportunities. As a joint source of inspiration for product, market, sales and distribution ideas, SCHOTT fulfills end customer wishes before they have even been expressed.
An important design feature of the new building near Vienna’s main station is the glass facades, which reveal the wooden windows behind them that separate the offices from the outside. This is a double facade, where the outer glass facade protects the wooden windows fronted by a shading system from the effects of weathering. The wooden windows were required as an ecological component with a view to obtaining sustainability certification, as were the controlled ventilation system and wooden furniture for the 4,500 employees.
According to window manufacturer Katzbeck, architects Henke Schreieck commissioned the custom-designed windows for this project that were then subjected to various tests for air permeability, sound and noise insulation. In this conjunction, the manufacturer partnered with the HFA (Holzforschung Austria) (Austrian Forest Products Research Society) in Vienna.
The total 7,321 window frames (in oiled larch) measuring 2.40 m to 3.40 m high, were delivered according to building progress. The glazing was mounted into the frames on site by a steelwork fabricator and the frames then installed into the buildings. Due to the curved facade almost all windows had different dimensions. Every office has controllable, room-height ventilation openings.
Unusual assembly technique
“Initially, an aluminium frontage was planned,” said Peter Schober, Head of Construction Engineering and Windows Division at the HFA.
But other arguments prevailed:
Wood was the main contender due to the certification requirements.
The builder initially had reservations about fire safety and the durability of wood.
But this scepticism was quickly defused and ultimately, a joint visit to a bank building in Rosenheim featuring a wood facade managed to convince all stakeholders.
Extensive tests resulted in new assembly detail
What is special, however, is the position of the glass facade, which led to an unusual installation method for the windows.
As Schober says: “In the course of the installation process there was a discussion about how in the case of metal facades used in double facades the inner metal windows are supposed to be mounted first and then the external glass elements. But in some cases this would have meant directly exposing the wooden windows to weathering for which they were not designed. So the installation process for the facade had to be reversed: first the outer panes, then the inner windows. Changing the order resulted in a cost-effective assembly. The windows were delivered by crane and stored floor by floor. Then the impact panes were mounted first followed by the installation of the windows from the inside.”
In this context, the HFA was responsible for one construction detail that ultimately made air-tight installation of the windows possible in the first place. Because each window has connections at the top, bottom and sides, the manufacturer initially felt that it would be very difficult to ensure air-tight installation. Under these circumstances, a build-up of moisture could not be ruled out. A 1:1 sample within the scope of the HFA tests with the climate specified by the architect actually did reveal condensation and a penetration of moisture into the structural connection insulation. By modifying the installation with a kind of rear ventilation the build-up of moisture could be inhibited, which has proven effective in construction practice. Schober concludes: “Our contribution was to support the realisation of the project and/or demonstrate its feasibility, and to optimise the design in collaboration with the manufacturer, from a cost standpoint as well. This meant that we were also able to define the assembly method in such a way that the installation could be handed over without defects.”
The Dichroic Glass fins fitted to the windows on the Loma Linda University Children’s hospital tower are a unique decorative feature that have captured the attention of the campus community.
The Children Hospital’s appearance will vary from day to day because of the kaleidoscopic array of colors reflected on the tower windows.
Work is continuing on the instillation of glass panels that cover the new Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital tower. The unique material produces shifting colors on the building’s exterior as the light changes throughout the day — an effect similar to a prism.
The array of colors is projected onto the glass wall by Dichroic glass fins, a product of the Goldray Glass Company, headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The Dichroic glass product is actually a layer of color-shifting film material sandwiched between two glass panes. The glass will be attached to the hospital exterior as fins, which will capture light rays and project a changing array of colors on the hospital wall.
The colorful exterior to the Children’s Hospital tower is an effort to make the building especially attractive to its young patients, as well as to families and visitors.
Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital was founded in 1992 and is the only children’s hospital serving children from a four county area that comprises nearly 25 percent of California’s land mass. The hospital admits more than 15,000 children annually, and it provides ambulatory care to another 160,000.
The ongoing construction, which began approximately two years ago, is a part of Loma Linda University Health’s Vision 2020 – The Campaign for a Whole Tomorrow. New buildings for both hospitals will meet and exceed California’s upcoming seismic requirements for hospitals.
We’re sharing photographic updates of the hospital construction work on a periodic basis. Watch for special emphasis on some of the behind-the-scenes-views and untold stories at the Vision 2020 website.
The author proposes a simple surface quality test using a standard window cleaning scraper and common smartphone or shop microscope.
Metal scrapers, which do not scratch uncoated glass, are used by window cleaners throughout the world to clean quality uncoated tempered and annealed glass surfaces in an efficient, effective, environmentally friendly manner. Metal scrapers are also commonly used within the glass, painting and automotive industries.
Some tempered glass, however, scratches easily during cleaning, as a result of having travelled on furnace rollers contaminated with glass fines. The roller side then bears numerous fine defects which cause scratches when cleaned with a common metal scraper. Complaints of tempered glass scratching this way are widespread in the US market, though not unheard of in other markets.
The author proposes a simple surface quality test using a standard window cleaning scraper and common smartphone or shop microscope. His presentation is intended to increase awareness and promote the discussion and resolution of tempered glass roller side defects.
Numerous microscopic roller side defects are caused when tempered glass is processed on furnace rollers contaminated with glass fines; these defects in turn cause numerous fine scratches during cleaning with common metal scrapers.
A few of these microscopic defects is no problem – a surface with too many defects will scratch badly. By our count, this is the 9th paper presented at GPD to discuss roller side problems related to glass fines, and the 5th to discuss the glass fines/scratch problem. We hope to further the discussion. Does your company have a plan to minimize this problem?
Scratch-causing roller side defects are a result of microscopic glass fines entering the furnace – perhaps on unwashed or poorly washed glass. Infrequent cleaning of rollers may contribute to the problem. Everyone understands this should not occur to excess, but too often it does occur. How closely is this monitored?
Do frontline people understand? Particles on furnace rollers have the weight of softening glass pressing against them, and may cause a surface defect. The defect might be mechanical damage (a chip or a bump) – or the particle may be transferred from the roller to the glass.
There are many rollers in the heating chamber of a horizontal furnace, and every particle on a roller will touch the glass several times. It’s easy to see how a glass fines problem can get out of hand on the roller side, while the top may be unaffected. (There is no roller side issue for older vertical furnaces, and newer gas hearth furnaces.).
When a moving scraper encounters a microscopic fabricating debris defect during cleaning, there are several possible outcomes. Often there is no scratch; a finer defect might be passed over without incident, the defect might be broken or dislodged, but suspended in cleaning solution.
A defect might be trapped under the blade in a way that causes only minor abrasion without indenting the surface. None of the above are cause for concern. Often, however, a fabricating debris defect may be trapped by the moving scraper in a way that will indent the surface, causing a fine scratch with lateral chipping that may become visible.
In worst cases, due to excessive numbers of defects, a multitude of these fine scratches are created, and become visible due to sheer numbers. [Figure 1]
The best way to minimize our roller side glass fines/scratch issue is to control glass fines at the source. Perfection is unnecessary; however, poor quality surfaces are far from perfect. At least 11 microscopic defects are visible [Figure 2] – in a field of view smaller than 5mm square. For a tempered lite the size of a GPD poster (1m x 1.2m) this would project to 500,000 or more defects.
Much has already been written about particles and rollers with respect to a visible roller side defect – white haze. Tempering experts routinely advise fabricators to prevent particles from entering the furnace, to ensure the quality of edgework, to temper only clean glass, to keep furnace rollers clean, and keep the area around the furnace clean.
We realize particles are not the only contributor to white haze issues, but this advice is applicable to the glass fines/scratch issue as well.
The old advice for cleaners to test a cleaning method in the field and look for damage is not practical in the matter of scrapers versus glass fines. These microscopic particles cause scratches that may be microscopic at first – invisible to the naked eye for hours.
This is because, due to time delayed scratch growth, microscopic scratches may become 10 times wider several hours later; thus an invisible scratch 10-20 microns wide may become visible hours later (at 200-300 microns wide). To perform a field test, cleaners would need to test representative samples of all glass with scrapers and wait a day to check for damage, or examine each with a microscope. Is this a reasonable expectation?
There are ways a fabricator monitor their own efforts to minimize glass fines and defects that cause scratches during cleaning. Unlike some other well-known quality issues, glass fines generally can’t be seen. So how can managers, furnace operators and quality controllers monitor efforts to meet quality objectives?
A simple test can be done using a wide window cleaning scraper on tempered glass to simulate the effects of future cleaning. This test attempts to cause fabricating debris scratches which can be observed with a smartphone camera and clip-on microscope, or a common shop microscope. Anyone in the organization can do this test.
Felt tipped marker
Lighted shop microscope – 40x – 100x
Smartphone camera with microscope attachment
Conveniently located testing area
6 inch glass cleaning scraper such as the Triumph MK3. [Figure 3]
Obtain test lites at furnace unload; label each with relevant information such as date and time.
Always test the roller side.
Test promptly, while the glass is clean. If you’ll be testing later, be sure to clean the glass again. (When the glass is clean, use of water is optional.)
Draw two parallel lines 6 inches apart with a felt tipped marker, from one edge to the other. Place the scraper between the lines, near one edge.
Apply firm pressure and push the scraper completely across the glass – try to cause scratches. [Figure 4]
After scraping, use the microscope to observe the scraper’s edge. Note whether any debris has accumulated. [Figure 5]
Use the marker to draw a perpendicular line across the path of the scraper.
Scratches are more numerous toward the end of the path than at the beginning.
Place the microscope on one end of that new line.
Turn on the light, and rotate the scope so light shines perpendicular to the path.
Focus the shop microscope on the line.
Slowly move the microscope along the line, from one end to the other.
Try to count every scratch that intersects the line you’ve drawn [Figure 6].
Enter result in a log, and report any unusual results promptly.
Scratches will occur immediately, but it takes hours for scratches to be fully realized. Scratches which are difficult to find at first, might be visible the next day.
You may see more defects than scratches, and more microscopic scratches than visible scratches. On quality surfaces, defects will be scarce, microscopic scratches will be rare and visible scratches rarer still.
Proper illumination is essential. Keep the light perpendicular to scratches. [Figure 7]
The microscope may be used to follow any scratch to the point of origin. Often an interesting defect will be seen at the point of origin that may help inform troubleshooting efforts. [Figure 8]
We urge glass tempering experts to turn their attention to the glass fines/scratch problem and develop literature, training, software modules, etc. specific to this issue. Glass tempering technology has advanced to the point where powerful software can control processes, and laser marking tracks the history of every lite tempered.
We urge fabricators take advantage of resources find available to them. As mentioned, articles about white haze tend to have excellent advice about keeping particles out of a furnace. An unprecedented number of resources are available online. Search for the Glass Tempering Handbook.
The professional networking site LinkedIn has several glass discussion groups; some have thousands of members. There are excellent articles on tempered glass issues online at www.glassfiles.com, www.glastory.com and elsewhere online. Equipment manufacturers are good sources of information.
The most difficult way to get feedback on roller side quality is dealing with reports of glass scratching in the field. The best way to know if your operation would benefit from a renewed emphasis on plant cleanliness, tempering practices, and equipment maintenance is to check in house for scratch-causing roller side defects.
Testing can help a fabricator discover and resolve quality issues internally, possibly without resorting to expensive forensic methods such as scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The small cost of monitoring should be recoverable through sustained productivity, extended useful life of equipment, and a general reduction in costs associated with scratched tempered glass.
The world uses scrapers to remove foreign matter (cleaning, glass and other industries) and the world knows scrapers don’t scratch uncoated glass. Attempts to convince the world to use slower and more labor intensive means don’t seem to be working. Will that change any time soon? There will be always be demand for safe, practical, effective cleaning methods, and for glass that can be cleaned with scrapers.
Gary Mauer is Director of the Window Cleaning Network, member of MWCoA, and a founding member of the International Window Cleaning Association. His 38 year career in the window cleaning industry was preceded by 3 years experience with a glass fabricator.
Yale has launched a fully reversible window hinge with unique easy close functionality.
The Yale Verso window hinge has several additional features alongside the easy close functionality, including full rotation for cleaning – making it the perfect choice for upper floor residential and commercial upper floor windows.
Built with the user in mind, the Verso’s design offers an extremely high level of functionality. For practicality and convenience, the sash rotates fully on the outside of the building, ensuring no damage to window blinds, curtains or internal window displays.
Likewise, the geometry does not allow the sash to rotate above the height of the frame. This ensures that there are no issues in recessed installations or those with protrusions above the window
Grant Stratford, Technical Director for Yale Door and Window Solutions, comments: “We’re extremely pleased to launch the Yale Verso window hinge, which provides the ideal reversible solution with easy close functionality. It is a hinge that has been designed to be both user-friendly and secure.
“The Verso hinge can be used in flush casement windows, making it ideal for use in residential upper floor applications.”
The hinge is available in six module sizes to accommodate sash heights ranging from 460mm to 1,500mm, and accessories are available to enable manufacturers to achieve PAS 24 on their Yale Verso hinge.
For further information on the Yale Verso Window Hinge or the rest of the Yale Door and Window Solutions range, please visit www.yaledws.co.uk.
POLFLAM specializes in large-format fire-resistant glass. New upcoming solutions are systematically undergoing tests at notified laboratories.
In 2016, symmetrical POLFLAM® glass in the EI 30 class, measuring 5900 x 3100 mm, was tested at the prestigious ift Institute in Rosenheim. Two years later, we tested glass panes of the same dimensions – but this time in vertical position!
Only a few testing centres in Europe have a fire-test furnace with dimensions that allow testing of such large glass panes in the production of which POLFLAM specializes.
On 19 December 2018, a test of POLFLAM® glass, class EI 30, dimensions 3100 x 5900 mm in vertical position, was carried out in the Fire Testing Laboratory at the Construction Technology Institute in Pionki.
AWS is proud to have been awarded the entire building envelope package and work alongside Ryan Companies to bring this project to life.
Designed by world-renowned architecture firm, Renzo Piano Building Workshop, Krause Gateway Center is located in Western Gateway Park downtown Des Moines, IA. The building serves as the new headquarters for Kum & Go, but also provides many spaces open to the public.
All six stories feature wall-to-wall glass, allowing natural light into the building and views out onto the surrounding Pappajohn Sculpture Park. The lobby boasts 29-ft-tall glass panels, which were the second tallest in North America at the time of installation.
AWS is proud to have been awarded the entire building envelope package and work alongside Ryan Companies to bring this project to life. Our design team took on the challenges presented by an all-glass lobby and were able to create custom, workable solutions while maintaining aesthetic integrity. Our field crew also went the extra mile and put in numerous hours up front to prepare for successful handling of glass lites of this magnitude.
Krause Gateway Center is a great addition to Des Moines architectural portfolio, and the public will enjoy it in the same ways they enjoy the sculptures found in Western Gateway Park.
Project Details Architect Renzo Piano Building Workshop, OPN Architects
Contractor Ryan Companies
Ubiquitous Energy has produced the first demonstration commercial window façades using over 1 square meter of the company’s truly transparent solar technology, ClearView Power™.
The fiberglass-framed ClearView Power™ window units demonstrate the transparent photovoltaic technology’s aesthetic beauty, high transparency, and color neutrality.
“These window demonstrations are the result of many years of development and represent the great progress achieved with ClearView Power™. Recent advances led to the creation of these prototype façades, which are the world’s first large-area, truly transparent solar window façades,” said Ubiquitous Energy co-founder and CTO, Miles Barr.
Each façade is made of six insulated glass units (IGUs) that are each 14 inches by 20 inches in size, totalling over 1 square meter of ClearView Power glass.
The windows produce solar electricity in sunlight that can provide power to buildings for a wide range of applications including lighting, while simultaneously maintaining the performance of standard commercial window glass: over 50% transparency, neutral in color, and low emissivity (low-E) for energy efficiency.
The lightweight, fiberglass window frames representing the latest and best in lightweight and high insulation framing were custom created by Alpen High Performance Products.
“With support from our partners, we are excited to be closing in on the realization of our vision to commercialize this technology for broad adoption within the $100B+ architectural glass market,” said Ubiquitous Energy CEO, Keith Wilson. The company plans to begin pilot installations of the demo size window units in 2019.
Applied directly to glass using standard glass coating equipment, ClearView Power™ is a highly transparent, color neutral coating. Using standard thin film coating equipment, ClearView Power™ selectively absorbs and converts non-visible light (ultraviolet and infrared) to electricity while transmitting visible light.
Additionally, ClearView Power™ doubles as a low-E and solar control coating in addition to its electricity generation by blocking infrared light that is commonly known as solar heat. The transparent solar coating can be applied to vertical surfaces of buildings turning traditional windows into aesthetically pleasing, highly energy efficient, and electricity generating windows that are desired by architects, designers, and occupants.
Separate glass with any desired contour? Without generating dust and reworking the edges? This is possible, even quickly, with specially shaped ultrashort laser pulses.
The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is developing a technology that – with refractive and diffractive optical elements – gives laser beams a form optimally adapted to the respective task. In addition, the applications go far beyond separating glass: In the future, head-up displays for the automotive industry will also be produced.
The smartphone displays raised the question of how round shapes in tempered glass can be separated, both quickly and easily. The question has significantly advanced the development of laser systems for ultrashort pulse (USP lasers). For glass can be modified with these pulses and be broken along virtually any contour without releasing residues.
The laser pulses do not scratch the surface, but generate small mechanical stresses inside the material volume, which result in a clean edge when the material is separated. For this, however, a special intensity distribution is needed in the laser beam, with a long beam waist and a steeply sloping intensity profile.
How are customized laser beams developed?
Modern diffractive optical elements (DOE) can shape light into almost any desired shape. Thanks to their diffraction structure, the laser beam can be adjusted precisely. Thus, special beam profiles or complex patterns can be generated from a single beam. Alternatively, the DOE distributes the energy of a single beam to a whole array of similar partial beams.
Complex diffraction structures are a special feature of DOEs. Developing such hightech optics begins at a computer: There, scientists calculate tiny phase patterns, which produce the desired beam distribution. Using a programmable spatial light modulator, they then test the calculated structures with pixel-based phase adjustments and analyze the generated beam with a microscope.
After a few iterations, the optimal structures of the DOE are lithographically inscribed in glass. As pure glass optics, DOEs can also be used with over 100 watt USP lasers. In addition to diffraction-based DOEs, refractive optical elements (ROE) are also commonly used for beamforming because they can refract beams at a power in the multi-100 watt range.
New applications for DOEs in the automotive industry
With their high thermal stability, DOEs and ROEs bring significant benefits as they increase the productivity of USP laser systems. For example, scientists at Fraunhofer ILT have developed DOEs that form a whole array of up to 196 similar beams from one powerful USP laser beam.
However, even when individual beams are used for processing, these optical elements open up many new exciting possibilities. Specially shaped USP laser beams can structure surfaces, introduce stress into glass volumes or change the refractive index locally.
Scientists at Fraunhofer ILT, together with the Chair for Laser Technology LLT at RWTH Aachen University and partners from industry, are exploring the extent to which beams of USP lasers can be shaped. Within the framework of the Digital Photonic Production DPP research campus – a funding initiative of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) – TRUMPF and 4JET Technologies, among others, are participating in these R&D activities.
Specifically, the partners are working on processing glass for head-up displays for the automotive industry, for example. To do this, the experts in the “Femto DPP” project are producing micrometer-sized defects in the glass.
These reflect LED light at a certain angle, just as it is needed for head-up displays. The laser used in the machining can also be used to generate predetermined breaking points, which are introduced in a controlled manner for subsequent rapid glass cutting. In the future, the processing should also work on any curved glass panels.
When using USP laser pulses, the team at Fraunhofer ILT has mastered the entire process chain from beamforming simulation to plant and process development. Details of this development as well as many new applications will be presented at the “5th UKP-Workshop: Ultrafast Laser Technology” on April 10 and 11, 2019 in Aachen.
Customers of the Bystronic glass HEGLA Preferred Partnership have made investments to stay ahead of an ever changing market.
Whilst innovation and technological advances continue to be priorities for both companies, the design engineers are skilled at simplifying manufacturing processes to improve profit margins for customers.
Automation combined with process optimisation have for a long time placed Bystronic glass and HEGLA as leaders in the glass processing field. With decades experience in adapting to developing markets the team is adept at evaluating rapid change in the sector and producing a full range of products that can cater to future market demands.
The new high-output cutting system for laminated safety glass, known as StreamLam, is one such product with its triple positioning system and a double-decker principle. This machine can cut up to three sheets of glass simultaneously and comprises two cutting machines.
Designed for both commercial applications and domestic the StreamLam can achieve up to 30% more output than standard alternatives. By integrating one or two Remaster residual sheet storage units, this system is ideal for processors looking to expand. Whether as a new installation or as a replacement for an existing line the StreamLam can provides substantial cost saving benefits for those looking to develop their product range.
The vision of a Smart Factory is very much a new reality with next generation production floor logistics at the heart of new innovations. Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) from HEGLA provide a simple transport solution for mobile storage racks, including A and L-frames.
As with all new potential investments, the HEGLA team evaluates customer needs and prepares tailored solutions to optimise manufacturing methods. AGVs can easily be integrated into the production software and will perform logistical tasks, between the cutting lines and downstream processing on the production line.
Currently the AGVs have a load capacity of up to 2.5 tons and can be integrated into a manufacturing control system or a guidance system. These help to organise the production flow in a facility and are synchronised with the production cycles. Customers individual requirements are evaluated to transport glass safely between different stations for processing.
Steve Goble, HEGLA UK comments, “With the HEGLA AVGs forming an integral part of the control system routes and orders can easily be adapted – either via system control or by the operator.”
NUST MISIS Scientists Discover “Impossible” Material according to the Laws of Modern Chemistry.
An international team of physicists and materials scientists from NUST MISIS, Bayerisches Geoinstitut (Germany), Linkoping University (Sweden), and the California Institute of Technology (U.S.) has discovered an “impossible” modification of silica-coesite-IV and coasite-V materials, which shouldn’t exist if modern laws of Chemistry are correct.
Their structure is an exception to the generally accepted rules for the formation of chemical bonds in inorganic materials formulated by Linus Pauling, who won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for that discovery. The research results were published in the international scientific journal Nature Communications on November 15th, 2018.
According to Pauling’s rules, “vertices” connect the fragments of atomic lattice in inorganic materials, and since the compound by “faces” is the most energy-consuming way of forming chemical bonds, it should not exist in nature.
However, scientists have shown experimentally and proven using calculations conducted on NUST MISIS’s supercomputer that such a connection is possible if we put materials in conditions of ultrahigh pressures. The results obtained open up a completely new path in the development of modern materials science as well as a fundamentally new class of materials that exist in extreme conditions.
“The metastable phases of high-pressure silica, coesite-IV and coesite-V, were synthesized and described: their crystal structures differ sharply from any previously considered models. Two open coesite contain SiO6 octahedras, which unlike in Pauling’s rules, are connected via common edges, which is the most energetically costly way [to form] for a chemical bond. Our results show that possible silicate magmas in the earth`s mantle may have complex structures making them more compressible than previously thought”, said Professor Igor Abrikosov, head of the theoretical research group and the NUST MISIS Laboratory for the Modelling and Development of New Materials.
The research group, led by Professor Igor Abrikosov (NUST MISIS, Russia, and Linkoping University, Sweden), specializes in the study of the properties of materials under ultrahigh pressure. Placing materials in extreme conditions is one of the most promising ways of creating qualitatively new materials, which opens up fantastic opportunities for societal developments. For example, in one recent scientific work, scientists created material-nitrides which were previously considered impossible to obtain.
In the process of studying the modification of silicon oxide, the information about the structure and its mechanical properties are key for understanding the processes occurring in the Earth’s mantle, which exist at unthinkably high temperatures and pressures deep in our planet’s core.
Scientists have discovered that a special form of silicon oxide—polyester-coesite—undergoes a number of phase transformations at a pressure of up to 30 hPa and forms new phases (“coesite-II” and “coesite III”), which in their crystal lattice retain SiO4 tetrahedrons as their main structural element.
In the new experiments, scientists went further, compressing silicon oxide in a diamond anvil at over 30 hPa, and as a result saw structural changes in this phase using single-crystal x-ray diffraction. The results they obtained were unexpected — these structural changes will force an adjustment to generally accepted scientific canon, finding an exception to the tried-and-tested veracity of Pauling’s rules.
Two completely hitherto unknown coesite modifications (coesite-IV, and coesite-V) with structures (Pic. 1) exceptional and “impossible” from the classical crystal-chemical point of view were discovered: they have penta-coordinated silicon bordering with SiO6 octahedra, and simultaneously consist of four-, five-, and six-coordinated silicon. Some fragments of the atomic lattice are also connected by faces rather than vertices, which according to the generally accepted Pauling rules, is not possible.
Building on the stunning success of its award-winning Heritage Flush Window, Deceuninck has launched an equally stunning new Flush Door to its Heritage Collection.
The Flush Door has the only dedicated open-out flush door sash on the market, perfectly complementing the Heritage Flush Sash.
The new Flush Door combines beautiful style with outstanding performance. It has been designed to replicate traditional timber and aluminium and comes in 26 colourways from stock.
Deceuninck’s latest product is also #BestInClass for weather performance and energy efficiency, with Class 4 600 Pa Air Permeability, Class E1050 Pa Water Tightness (full frame) and Class A3 1200 Pa Wind Resistance.
The doorset achieves an ‘A’ energy rating with U-Values as low as 1.0 W/m2K with triple glazing and 1.3 W/m2K with double glazing. The Flush Door also comes with dedicated PAS24-approved hardware and is Part M compliant for easy access.
From a fabricator’s perspective the Flush Door is a welcomed addition. It uses the same platform as Deceuninck’s Heritage 2800 system and comes with dedicated assembly jigs and pre-formed sash corner gaskets for ease of fabrication.
The Flush Door also has dedicated reinforcement to prevent the need for glass bonding, while dedicated sash and frame-positioning blocks improve performance and make it easier to transport.
Deceuninck Managing Director Rob McGlennon says: “Following the astounding success of our Heritage Flush Window we’ve added another product to the Flush family. Our new Flush Door looks fantastic and is #BestInClass for performance. We’ve designed the door to look and perform the very best, which was made possible thanks to the bespoke PAS24 hardware.
“The Flush Door suites with the Heritage Flush Window for a seamless, high-end look that enhances both traditional and contemporary homes. Like all products in our Heritage Collection it is available in 26 colourways from stock, which we’re extending to 30 colourways in 2019.”