WICONA Curtain Walls to Maximize Light and Connect with the Environment.

Architect : Dark Arkitekter in collaboration with Zinc interior architects

Metal Builder : STATICUS UAB

Project details :

Fornebuporten is one of the office and residential clusters that have popped up over the past two decades on the land of what was formerly Oslo airport. With its 50,400 sq. meters of offices, 3,000 sq. meters of shopping and 30,000 sq. meter basement, it is located at the entrance to Fornebu peninsula.

Fornebuporten-2_0

This stunning building complex, designed by Dark Arkitekter in collaboration with Zinc interior architects, offers modern and functional office spaces for approximately 3,000 people.

Two volumes confine a public square which central element is a lowered atrium. Here a variety of retail programs is available not only to the 3,000 people working at Fornebuporten but also all the commuters that will use the future Fornebuporten metro station every day.

Fornebuporten-3_0

The building mass surrounding the atrium connects the two buildings at the basement level. This is where some of the common functions are located, such as car and bike parking, changing rooms, kitchen, and technical facilities.

The two identical buildings overlooking the central atrium from opposite sides are composed of five volumes with the same width but different heights sitting on a glazed base. This gives the impression that the building is floating over the square, due to the contrast of the lightness of the base and the bulkiness of the office volumes.

Fornebuporten-6_0

These volumes cantilever outward, alternately toward East or West to optimize daylight intake. Maximizing the daylight areas makes it possible to increase building density. Each floor is planned to host between 250 and 300 permanent working spaces.

Drawing visual references from the offshore industry, the 20-meter cantilevers rest on a central core resembling an oil rig. This resemblance symbolically points out the ambition behind the project: Fornebuporten should be a magnet for knowledge-based enterprises and oil and offshore intelligence.

Fornebuporten-7_0

WICONA Curtain Walls to Maximize Light and Connect with the Environment

The building complex is designed to be welcoming and transparent with optimized daylight. On the ground floor the continuous curtain wall from floor to ceiling creates a ceiling height of more than five meters.

The unitized curtain wall used for this building was a project solution based on WICTEC 50EL with patented unitized gasket system from WICONA, while the area between the buildings and on the ground floor consists of a WICONA WICTEC 50 curtain wall.

Fornebuporten-8_0In addition, the WICTEC 50 façade has achieved the Bronze level in the Cradle to Cradle (C2C) Product Standard. C2C product certification presupposes a paradigm shift in thinking about how a product is designed, what’s in it, and where it goes after use.

It is a guidance system for product designers and manufacturers that leads to the creation of products which redefine quality, aesthetics, and innovation. In order to achieve one of the five levels of certification (from Basic up to Platinum), a product must satisfy the minimum requirements of the relevant level in all five categories.

These categories are: material health, material reutilization, renewable energy and carbon management, water stewardship, social fairness and biodiversity.

Fornebuporten-9_0The office volumes seem to hover over the public ground floor restaurants, coffee shops and cafeterias. The underside of the “hovering” volumes is a playful checkers cladding – the result of the folding of the building’s facades under the cantilevers.

Fornebuporten is strategically placed around Fornebu’s metro station. This stimulates a more ecologically aware way of commuting, a priority to the Norwegian political sphere and society in general. Openness to the public is also a fundamental side of the Fornebuporten complex.

A big part of the project is open to the public realm: the square sprinkled with sculptures, gardens, and urban furniture; the inviting cafés, bakeries, and restaurants in the transparent ground floor or the retail spaces and gym around the central atrium.

This openness breaks away from the traditional definition of an office building by creating a synergy between city and office cluster.

Contributing to the establishment of Fornebu as a city district, with new public spaces and facilities, improves both the quality of life of its inhabitants and makes those who work at Fornebuporten every day more integrated with the city itself.

Photos: Hufton+Crow

 

Technical details

 

WICTEC 50

  • Filigree look without any change in appearance to the inner mullion and transom gaskets
  • Ideal for vertical and polygon façades, sloped glazing and spatial structures
  • Individual design thanks to a wide range of profile geometries for the structural and glazing profiles
  • Uf up to 1.2W/m²K, solutionfor passiv houses up to Uf =0.74W/m²K
  • Reliable glass load transmission (up to 4 kN), with adapted transom-joint technology
  • Overlapping and secure drainage at the cross point, without mechanical mullion processing, ensures tried-and-tested impermeability
  • Broad selection of profiles enables economic adaptation to structural requirements, with the additional option of internal reinforcement
  • Glazing from outside featuring single- and/or two-part pressure and cover profiles
  • Design options with concealed or visible screw fixture
  • Extensive solutions for structure junctions and conservatories
  • Burglar resistance up to WK3 with presure profile reinforcement
  • bullet resistance class up to FB4
  • fire resistance class G30/F30, glass or panel up to 1.8×3.0m or 1.4×2.4m, overhead glazing possible, construction principle identical regular WICTEC 50
  • Complete product range for glazed roofs or slope facades
  • Easy integration in roof windows, realizeable as SHEV
  • variant as all glass facade, appearance similar to structural sealant glazing (SSG) facade
  • Special pressure profile available with concealed guide for integrated sun protection

 

WICTEC 50 EL

  • Unitized façade system on a stick basis
  • visible sighlines 50mm an dfor expansion mullion 60mm
  • Uf up to 1.4W/m²K
  • infill thickness up to 44mm
  • max façade element dimesions up to 3x3m

SOURCE

Capture

(0)

Our quality policy is to Manufacturing and supply architectural products to the requirement and satisfaction of our customers. Our objective is to continuous improvement in the quality of our products through an effective quality management system, technical improvements, cost effectiveness, employees involvement and develop competency.

asdSpecification:

  • Equipped with steel pivot pin head of Diameter 15mm
  • Cover Plated SS 304
  • Finish SSS/PSS

For More Product click here


asdasdfsd

Specification

  • Patch Lock to secure swing doors
  • Bolet Projection of 15 mm (single Action)
  • Supplied With three computerized high quality keys formaximum protection
  • Cover palte ss 304
  • Finish SSS/PSS

For More Product click here


Capture

PRODUCT INTRODUCTION

The product features consummate craftsmanship and superior functions, suitable for common and toughened glass door, wooden door hotel, store and office building

SUGGESTIONS ON FLOOR HINGE SELECTION

  1. Selection of different models fo floor HINGE is mainly based on glass door weight.
  2. Calculation of glass weight: according to national standard, 1 mm thick common and toughened glass is 2.5 kg per square meter. As to 12 mm thick, 2.3 m high and 1 m wide glass door commonly used in the country at present, the weight shall be 2.3x1x12x2.5=69 kg.
  3. The weight of the entire door can begot by adding up the weight of all accessories and the weight of glass.
  4. If heavy-duty floor HINGE is chosen for a light-weight glass door, the cost will increase and you cannot abtain good opening effect because it is heavy-duty.
  5. If floor HINGE with inadequate weight bearing is chosen to reduce project costs, it will directly influence service life of loor HINGE.
  6. For an outside door, taking wind power into consideration, twin-cylinder floor HINGE should be chosen regardless of door sizes.
  7. In cold area, floor HINGE with anti-freeze hydraulic oil injected should be chosen, so as to revent malfunction of floor HINGE at a very low temperature.

For More Product click here


sdfsfgdgf

SFsfb

For More Product click here


asdfsfdDOOR ACCESSORIES

Specification :

  • Floor Pivot for Framed and wooden doors
  • Manual opening and closing of doors
  • High Quality Casting body SS-304
  • Pivot to suit standard Bottom Patch Installation
  • Idea Form making Small Revolving doors for Office and Parks etc

For More Product click here


SDF

DOOR HANDLES

Spaecification

  • Stainless steel Grade 304
  • Two point fixing with door
  • Integral locking facility
  • Key operated form outside
  • Thumb turn inside
  • supplied with high security keys
  • Dead Bolt movement 32mm
  • Finish: SSS

For More Product click here


adadada

For More Product click here


SDFSGF

GLASS DOOR KNOBS

Specifications

  • Knobs supplied with high quality rubber gaskets to prevent damage to glass and reduce vibration.
  • Made from Certified Stainless steel grade 304 for superior rust prevention.
  • Precision design for a secure back to back installation.
  • Superior quality mirror polish.

For More Product click here


SDFSDFSFSGDFG

SLIDING DOOR SYSTEM/ SENSOR DOOR

  • The micro computer control adopts German technology, so it can detect weight and size of the door quickly and accurately. Optimal parameters can be set for it to keep the door in the best condition. Running condition of the door can be remembered. Besides, it has adjusting function and is highly intelligent zed.
  • The remote control function, safe and reliable.
  • The width power source, low power consumption, efficiency high- performance, is stable.
  • Adopt brushless OC Motor and turbine worm reducer, high torque, high efficiency, long operating life.
  • Best humanity design, good safety, has encounter obstacles protection detection function.
  • Motor lock function, when door fully closed, remain closing, need not electric (switch) lock.
  • Half open function, can set opening position freely. Cooperate with various of access control modes.
  • The high quality post-sale service.

For More Product click here


SLIDING DOOR SYSTEM

ASDASD

121

For More Product click here


SHOWER CUBICLE

ASDADASD

ADADA

Specifications

  • All fittings in MIRROR finish for aesthetic looks
  • Assembly parts made with Genuine Stainless Steel SS304 grade.
  • Height adjustable as per actual site conditions.
  • suitable for bathroom and office sliding applications fittings ideal for use In glass 8-10-12mm

For More Product click here


BRASS SHOWER HINGES 

SDADADADAS

For More Product click here


FASFSD

STAINLESS STEEL SHOWER HINGS 

Specifications 
• German technology especially designed for frame less glass showers.
• High quality gaskets resistant to extreme temperatures keep the glass in position.
• Self closing from up to 30 degrees of opening.
• Tested to 1,00,000 cycles.
• Made with high quality Stainless Steel Grade 304.
• Superior quality Satin hairline finish for elegant looks.
• Recommended maximum door weight: 50kg (for 2 hinges).
• ideal for 8 to 10 mm glass thickness.

For More Product click here


GLASS CONNECTORS

ASDADASD

Specifications
• Used to hold fix glass with wall or with fix glass to fixed angle.
• High-strength structure for safety and firm grip.
• High quality gaskets resistant to extreme temperatures to keep the glass in position.
• Made from Certified stainless steel grade 304 for superior rust prevention.
• Contemporary design for better aesthetics.
• Superior quality Mirror & Satin Finish.
• Recommended for 8 to 10 mm glass thickness.

For More Product click here


KNIGHT HEAD ACCESSORIES

DZCVDFDHG

Specifications
• System for adding strength to glass shower cabins.
•German design to reduces vibrations and lateral movement of glass panels.
• Made from Certified stainless steel grade 304 for superior rust prevention.
• Superior quality Mirror & Satin polish.
• All fittings suitable for pipe Dia 19mm.

For More Product click here


PLASTIC SEALS 

SDAASAAADAD

Specifications
• Made from superior quality co-extruded PVC materials for long life.
• Resistant to extreme temperature fluctuations.
• Will not crack or harden over prolonged usage.
• Useful for any kind of glass to glass or surface to glass contact.
• Precision engineering for smooth and secure glass gripping.
• High transparency for elegant looks.

For More Product click here


SPIDER FITTINGS 

SADASDASDADSGRHJ

Specifications
• Spider fittings provide a unique combination of strength and elegance.
• Designed for giving maximum strength to weight ratio.
• Installed with articulated/fixed routes.
• Flexibility in installation.
• Made from Certified Stainless Steel grade 316 for superior rust prevention.
• Superior quality satin finish.

For More Product click here


(0)

Despite the imminent launch of the outward opening System 76, KÖMMERLING continue to invest in the 70mm platform and now their C70 and O70 Gold window and door system has been re-engineered to achieve a U w -value of just 1.2 W/(m 2 k).

With many other 70mm systems only achieving a U w -value of 1.4 W/(m 2 k) at best, this development by KÖMMERLING will be a major plus for their network of trade manufacturers and installers, particularly those in Scotland. Building specifiers can also issue the requirements for better U-values with increased confidence in proven, technically-led 70mm window and door systems.

The accomplishment of a U w -value of 1.2 W/(m 2 k) with the 5-chambered C70 and O70 Gold systems, was achieved on windows that were fully reinforced in the frame, sash and mullion. The glass specification was for a 28mm IGU, 90% argon filled comprising of Planiclear, Planitherm One and Swisspacer Ultimate spacer bar. The same window configuration also successfully achieved PAS 24 certification.

Brian McDonald, commercial manager for KÖMMERLING commented: ‘While much of our focus is on the launch of the revolutionary System 76, we continue to fully invest and support the 70mm platforms of C70 and O70 Gold. For the commercial and new build sectors, the attainment of a U-value of just 1.2 with a relatively standard glass specification is a major breakthrough, helping our customers to stand out with better window performance as is the KÖMMERLING way.’

SOURCE

KÖMMERLING

(0)

The new Aperio® H100 door handle from ASSA ABLOY features the power and flexibility of wireless access control into one slim, smartly designed door handle.

With easy retrofitting to almost any interior door assured, the new Aperio® offering is a cost effective method of extending access control to more doors by integrating with a wide range of third-party systems.

The Aperio® H100’s attractive aesthetic is ideal for indoor office and facility doors, with the ability to work within an online access control system or offline as a standalone device.

New stylish door handle for ASSA ABLOY's Aperio range - Buildingtalk | Construction news and building products for specifiers

A battery fits inside the handle for a discreet look, whilst drilling nor wiring are required and any existing mechanical cylinder can still be used.

The Aperio® H100 comes in left and right hand versions for doors between 35mm and 80mm thickness, with optional U-handle and USB adaptor.

Matthias Weiss, Product Manager for Aperio® at ASSA ABLOY EMEA said the range adds access control wirelessly to exterior and interior doors, from fire and safety doors with regulatory requirements to meeting rooms, labs and offices.

This new handle completes a substantial range of Aperio® wireless access control devices, which include online and offline Aperio® cylinders (C100/C900), escutcheons (E100/E900), an online and offline lock (L100/L900) and a wireless lock for bringing server racks and cabinets (KS100). The range can be viewed here.

SOURCE

ASSA ABLOY UK

(0)

St. Cloud Window Inc., a leading manufacturer of the high-performance aluminum window, door, and curtain wall products is pleased to introduce the SCW3000 Series, a new line of historic replication/narrow sightline windows and terrace doors.

The SCW3000 Series is designed around a three-inch frame engineered to maintain a narrow sightline profile yet facilitate the structural needs of large window openings and maintain the historic integrity required for landmark properties. It is available for awning, hopper, casement and fixed applications, as well as floating vent fenestrations that are common in buildings of historic significance.

The SCW 3000 Series replaces the SCW 2500 Series – itself a trustworthy and historically accurate product – doing everything that product line could do, and much more. Sightlines are virtually identical, but there are many more options for muntin shapes, millions, hardware and other accessories.

The new window boasts the same impressive performance test data as SCW’s other high-performing product lines with sound transmission ratings up to
45 STC and 36 OITC (without the need for an acoustic interior panel), and thermal values ranging from .23 – .31 U values and .16 – 36 SHGC values.

At St. Cloud Window, our products are continuously tested to the most up-to-date architectural performance standards by certified and accredited test laboratories, in accordance with uniform US and North American protocols to meet AW Architectural Performance Class requirements set by the North American Fenestration Standard AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101 I.S.2/A440-11.

For more information about St. Cloud Window, visit stcloudwindow.com, email marketing@stcloudwindow.com or call 800.383.9311.

About St. Cloud Window Inc.
Founded in 1952, St. Cloud Window is a national leader in high-performance aluminum window, door, and curtain wall products with particular emphasis on high acoustic attenuation and accurate historic replication. The company manufactures the finest custom aluminum window and door products for new building construction, commercial window replacement, historic window replacement and projects where high-performance acoustic attenuation sets the standard. St. Cloud Window is a woman-owned business with over 60 years of trusted experience.

SOURCE

Capture

(0)

Atlas promises to make 2018 the best year yet for its elite network of installers as it reports that a staggering 90% of quotes received for the Atlas Flat Rooflight convert to sales.

Production of the Atlas Flat Rooflight has reached an all-time high as installers are discovering the powerful selling potential and the high profit margins it delivers. And now, with an impressive conversion rate of 90%, more installers than ever are asking for the Atlas Flat Rooflight by name.

Gareth Thomas, sales director at Atlas Glazed Roof Solutions, explains: “This incredible result proves that our installers are flying the Atlas flag and winning some fantastic new business on the back of it. Homeowner demand for flat roof extensions is soaring and the market is hungry for modern glazed products that bring extra light into spaces. The Atlas Flat Rooflight is the perfect way to achieve this and its contemporary look and minimalistic design certainly turns heads, making it an easy sell for the installer.

“But that’s not the only reason for this whopping sales conversion rate – installers are proud to sell Atlas products and they’re inspired by just how quick and easy the Flat Rooflight is to fit. They’re also enticed by its competitive price, our fast five-day lead time on stock sizes and the comprehensive marketing support we provide, which helps them to clinch sales. There is nothing quite like Atlas and this product, just like the rest of the Atlas range, is an all-round winner!”

Atlas installer Vale Orangeries has installed several Atlas Flat Rooflights and was one of the first installers ever to win the coveted Atlas Installation of the Month award with an incredible contemporary Flat Rooflight installation. Owner Dean Edmonds says:

“We only install Atlas products because they are the best glazed roofing products out there. The Atlas Flat Rooflight carries all the hallmarks of an Atlas product – slim sightlines and a sleek modern look – but it’s an all-round winner for us because of how easy it is to install, typically taking less than half the time it takes to install a lantern. The product is ready glazed and we simply drop it into the opening, which means we can complete projects quickly, whilst increasing our profits margins.

“People love the look of the Flat Rooflight and we’ve generated a lot of work in homes that wouldn’t suit a lantern but still demand a statement glazed roof. In our experience, it’s easy to convert enquiries; the majority of customers see the Atlas Flat Rooflight in our showroom and read through the supporting literature and they want it. Then they ask how long it will be and, given that the Atlas Flat Rooflight is very easy to quote and order and the lead times are short, we can usually shave time off for them. The Atlas Flat Rooflight has completed our range of glazed roof products and helped us to enhance our business.”

Atlas Flat Rooflight Showroom displays have been proven to help installers sell more rooflights. These displays, which are free to installers who buy five flat rooflights, are a key element of the comprehensive marketing support package from Atlas.

Developed to equip installers with all the resources they need to create a professional appearance and successfully promote and sell to customers, the fully personalised marketing package includes brochures, digital marketing support, direct mail and advertising templates, retail leaflets and showroom display graphics.

The experienced marketing team at Atlas is also on hand to guide installers through their marketing and to develop a tailored programme to help them sell the complete range of Atlas products and achieve long term growth for their business.

Atlas Flat Rooflight Converts 90% Of Quotes Into Sales

SOURCE

FIT Show 2019

(0)

Walker Glass manufactured a low-iron glass with white, backpainted and bronze-tinted mirror with a satin acid etch applied.

For years, the interior of a commercial building was considered an afterthought. The look was dictated by choices of paint, carpet and wall coverings. It was basic and usually left to the tenant.

However, a revolution of sorts has been taking place in recent years, with a stronger push to design interiors with innovative building products forging a memorable and branded appearance.

The new workplace strategy promoting open floor plans required that architects and interior designers create modern and progressive images in these more capacious spaces.

A new campus was designed for ABB in Montreal to house major aspects of its business including R&D, Manufacturing, Testing, and E-mobility. The outside design was elegant, but what about the inside? What would the award-winning architectural firm Lemay do to make the interiors appealing and functional,  and what obstacles would they face in trying to achieve their goals?

“One of the new workplace’s key elements is the complete absence of private offices,” said Pierre-Antoine Brais, Project Director and Interior Design at Lemay. “This creates challenges that can be mitigated by the use of glass dividers and restricted access to information-sensitive areas such as human resources.

“In ABB’s case, we sought out functional, sustainable materials that were easy to maintain. Design-wise, we wanted to convey a feeling of light and lightness.”

The Beauty That Resides on the Inside | Walker Glass

This effect involved scaling back walls and making them less opaque. For example, Lemay used glass near the elevators because there is light coming in from the perimeter windows, and Lemay wanted to extend it towards the center of the workplace, using a high-quality, reflective surface with an interesting texture.

“It was a new way to interpret a material in more than a just functional way,” he said.

The glass mentioned above plays a major role in achieving this appearance. Walker Glass manufactured a low-iron glass with white, backpainted and bronze-tinted mirror with a satin acid etch applied. The results are stunning and reach far beyond the traditional painted walls.

“When we were working on this project, there was an excitement here because we love the effect we have on interiors,” said Charles Alexander, Business Development Manager for Walker Glass. “The key for us was the addition of our satin etch on the bronze mirror. It transformed the look dramatically.

“The satin tamed the reflectivity of the mirror just enough that it allowed the color to expand, and gave the surface an extraordinary look and feel. Lemay’s design was absolutely perfect for this application.”

The Beauty That Resides on the Inside | Walker Glass

Aesthetics are just one part of the design. Feeling good is the other, and that is all about the need for the occupant’s comfort. How did the team from Lemay approach this very important aspect for the ABB project?

“User comfort is always our first concern. If the environment isn’t comfortable, or doesn’t meet the users’ needs, it won’t succeed,” said Lemay associate Sandra Neill. “We strive to meet the client’s corporate objectives while at the same time conveying the brand.

“Comfort plays a role in brightness, acoustics and furniture. We also have to give the end-users the tools they need to perform their job in the most effective and efficient manner.”

For example, the new ABB site has a comprehensive offering of informal meeting areas and alternative workspaces: project areas; collaboration booths with soft seating and tables for small gatherings; adjustable-height tables, with and without treadmill work stations; window locations; single and double phone booths for complete audio privacy; egg pods and individual lounge seating equipped to support mobile workers with portable technology devices.

“Comfortable and efficient workspaces are key to ensuring employee productivity and satisfaction,” said Sandra.

The inside of the building, once a postscript to a bigger story, now gets headlining attention. The mixing of beauty and comfort that leads to productivity is something every building owner, developer, or business can truly get behind, now that the days of basic interiors are long gone.

Project: ABB Canada Campus- Interior, Montreal, QC
Architect: Lemay
Glazier: Vitrerie JL, Boisbriand, QC
Low Iron Glass: Vitro (PPG) Starphire®
Mirror and Etched Glass Manufacturer: Walker Glass, Montreal QC
Etched Products Used: 
Textures Satin: The satin finish is characterized by a highly polished surface and high light transmittance.

SOURCE

Capture

(0)

Two solutions to reduce the problem of noise diffusion in the office: the sound-absorbing walls.

Among the many customizations that VetroIN has designed for your office furniture, there are also sound-absorbing walls that can limit the transmission of noise between one room and another.

The problem of the echo, of hearing the conversations from the next room, of not being able to work in silence and serenity because of the background noise, is in effect one of the most annoying in the office, especially if it is large, especially if it is crowded.

VetroIN has studied these sound-absorbing walls to solve the problem, without sacrificing aesthetics and design that the company always guarantees.

What features do these sound-absorbing walls have?

1 – sound reduction thanks to the insertion during the lamination process of PVB transparent films with increased thickness
2 – enhancement of noise absorption by overlaying glazed elements with elements in milled wood or polyester fiber panels covered with fabric (to be personalized)

Based on the extent of sound diffusion, one or the other or even both solutions will be chosen.

As always, we invite you to consult our website, at the vetroINnovazioni page you will find the category dedicated to acoustic panels. And right here you will have also the opportunity to see some pictures of recent realizations of sound-absorbing walls.

SOURCE

(0)

TruFrame’s Liniar Refine Flush Sash windows are based on traditional timber window styles with 21st-century features and benefits.

We manufacture our products to not only look fantastic but to provide the best safety possible for your home. Our Liniar Refine Flush Sash windows are based on traditional timber window styles with 21st-century features and benefits. As window suppliers we believe it is crucial that we offer the highest levels of security, as well as providing great thermal performance.

Our windows come in a wide range of colours and most are available within 5-7 days. The window is an exciting prospect for homeowners, which is why at TruFrame, we want them to be perfectly finished.

They are low maintenance and you’ll never have to treat or paint them. Customising our Liniar Refine Flush Sash windows with key-locking monkey tail handles and dummy stays, allows you to make the window your own, giving it the style and look you want.

We manufacture our windows using multi-chambered Liniar uPVC profiles in order to provide optimum thermal efficiency throughout your building, a window that provides warmth and comfort is what everyone needs.

As window manufacturers we also believe that looking after our customers is essential, which is why our Liniar Refine Flush Sash windows are Secured by Design accredited and Yale Shootbolt locking is covered by a money-back promise in the unlikely event of a break-in.

This window comes with 2 options – a mechanically jointed frame with a welded sash or a fully mechanical jointed option.

Our window and door products can bring any house to life, we aim to inspire the homeowner in order to find the product that’s perfect for them. We showcase a huge range of window products to cater for all potential customer’s needs and are sure to have the perfect product for you

SOURCE

TruFrame Logo

(0)

As part of continuous product development, Metal Technology has released a new lug that has been designed to work with short leg outer frames.

The new lug design allows the fitting of high-performance adhesive tapes, offering an optimal solution for the bonding of permanent, airtight or vapour barriers to the surrounding substructure.

Metal Technology’s Window Systems have been designed to integrate perfectly into any façade design. The wide and diverse range of profiles provides full structural integrity with high levels of both weather performance and thermal enhancement.

Metal Technology’s THERM.AL™ range utilises bespoke polyamide thermal break technology and enhanced thermal extrusions to deliver superior thermal performance. All window systems are fully SBD complaint.

New Lug from Metal Technology

SOURCE

Capture

 

(0)

A design inspired by an Abu Dhabi skyscraper, and brought to life in the prototype area of Maple’s Stockport factory, will soon be making a big impact on Salford’s skyline.

Maple are working with Morgan Sindall and architects AHR on a dramatic façade for a new multi-storey car park.

Made up of individual ‘kite-shaped’ aluminium panels, striking 3D hexagons will cloak the new building, which will be a far cry from the ugly concrete car parks of the past.

However, with imaginative concepts comes complex manufacture. So, Maple’s technical design team has been working closely with the architects since May 2016 to agree design and colour, and the intricacies of fixing and installation. Samples were created, reviewed and refined in our factory to avoid the costs and delays of making changes on site.

As with AHR’s original design in United Arab Emirates, the façade will provide solar and glare protection ― from all angles ― but still allow light to enter the building.

The project is due for completion in December 2018.

SOURCE

Maple

(0)

The insulated glass window is one of the most important components of modern life. On the one hand, it connects us with our environment by allowing us to see it (instead of a wall). On the other, it protects us from undesired environmental influences such as cold, heat or noise. Its transparency thus obscures the fact that insulating glass consists of a variety of materials, which only as a whole can satisfy the various demands of technical, highly complex end products. Each of these materials shows how it reacts once the product is assembled, whereby this reaction also always depends on how the raw materials were initially processed. And so glass too has a past life; everybody knows that luck and glass shatter easily and luck can rust easily… but glass? Dr Michael Emonds considers the possibilities.

The surface of freshly produced float glass is highly reactive. While the glass is being stored or transported, it may react with humidity that has penetrated the spaces between the layers of glass, which can lead to highly adhesive blotches of corrosion. If the corrosion is distinctive, the glass cannot be processed any further. The level of corrosion depends on the humidity, temperature, conditions of storage and transport and the quality of the glass (composition, hydrolytic class etc).

001

Furthermore, corrosion in the early stages is not recognizable to the eye and only becomes visible when the glass is processed further (e.g. by low-E coating, silvering or tempering). In the Chemetall development laboratory, corrosion-protected sheets were compared to non-protected sheets as to any reactions following application of a thin film coating (figure 1). In stress tests, the untreated sheets showed signs of flaking much sooner than sheets that were given an initial protective coating. The disturbance in film build-up that was responsible for this can, during further processing into insulation glass, also have a negative effect on the sealant on the glass surface

002

Or electrochemical action’. This definition can apply to the reaction undergone by float glass due to environmental humidity during storage or transport (figure 2).

HOW CORROSION OCCURS The effects of water on glass surfaces is a combination of two processes, which take place almost at the same time; the exchange of H+ ions in the water for Na+ ions on the surface of the glass (initial phase) and an alkaline reaction by the hydroxyl ions left over in the water to the silicate network on the surface of the glass (corrosion stage) (figure 3).

In the initial phase, the silicate network remains unchanged and an SiOx-rich layer with low Na+ content builds up. A constant replacement of  the layer of water adhering to the upper layer of the glass, eg due to rain then leads to a stabilisation of the glass.What happens however, when a thin film of water remains on the glass over a longer period and is not constantly replaced? The sodium hydroxide is no longer washed off by the rain but becomes more concentrated. When the pH level reaches 9-10, the glass structure starts to decompose. This process, called glass corrosion is consolidated by high humidity in connection with vastly varying temperatures (temperatures below dew point).003

004Capture

HOW TO RECOGNISE CORROSION While corrosion in the end phase is clearly recognizable by multi-coloured changes on the surface of the glass to white coloured deposits, the initial phases of corrosion are not visible but make further processing of the glass difficult, if not impossible.

Corrosion in the initial phase is characterised by various physical changes to the surface of the glass, e.g. a change in thermal expansion, refractive index and surface energy. Furthermore, already existing microscopic cracks are strengthened by the corrosion. A porous layer several micrometers thick occurs, in  Which various deposits can settle, making further processing difficult. Physical methods of measuring, such as ellipsometry, IR, REM, AFM or the measurement of the contact angle allow a very sensitive location of corrosion (figure 4).

Capture

HOW TO REDUCE CORROSION

In order to reduce production loss due to corrosion, the glass industry uses various procedures, e.g.:

  • Only freshly produced float glass is used for further processing. However, this is only possible for float glass manufacturers, even though there are problems for them also, eg in thick glass processing.
  • The glass is stored and transported at a constant temperature and humidity (figure 5). Due to the capacity of the float glass lines and the jumbo sizes produced, this solution is only partially applicable.
  • The stacks of glass are sealed off at the ends in order to prevent humidity from entering between the glass sheets. This method is mainly used to transport laminated glass but is hardly ever used for untreated glass.
  • The glass is polished prior to further processing. The surface of the glass is refreshed using a suspension of cerium oxide, aluminium oxide or other oxides, before being given its silver plating or low-E coating finish. Because a fresh glass surface is very reactive, further treatment must take place as quickly as possible.
  • Finally, it is also possible to reduce the pH value on the glass surface using acid. Mixtures of separating agents with adipic or boric acid in various concentrations allow the separation of the glass sheets on the one hand and the application of a corrosion protection on the other, in the same phase. Recently, people have started to apply a liquid corrosion protection, applying the separating agent in the second phase (figures 6 and 7). In this way, a better distribution of the acids on the surface is achieved. Due to the use of polyvalent acids, the buffer capacity of the protective acids can be improved.

Much can be done to protect glass from corrosion but it is not possible to exclude it completely. While corrosion in the initial phases can be removed using suitable polishing agents, visibly corroded glass can no longer be repaired to a reasonable standard.

Capture

As float glass available on the market can vary, (e.g. they can possess various hydrolytic qualities, or the year of manufacture may simply be different), polishing, in order to clean the surface of the glass is surely a reasonable step to take prior to further processing of the glass into a higher quality product. It must be pointed out once more that due to initial corrosion, defects on the glass surface will be increased, which may not become visible for some time after the end product has been completed unless silver layers start to flake off, colour defects of low-E glass or adhesion problems with insulating glass occur. Chemetall’s experience shows that corrosion can be reliably held back using tailor-made, anti-corrosive interleavants. However, one must remember that the corrosion protection must be totally washable, leaving no residue, prior to further treatment. The same applies to all other auxiliary agents such as cutting fluids, separating agents or coolants and of course, contamination of the glass surface due to dust, fingerprints, roller prints, gloves etc. This is no longer possible using just water alone; special detergent, used for treating glass is also required. It must also be possible to wash this off completely.

As can be seen, things can go wrong right at the beginning in the final production of insulating glass windows. It is certainly not easy to find a solid, overall approach. However, each individual stage must be carefully observed and its effects on the subsequent stages of the process assessed if one wishes to locate defects and to avoid them.

SOURCE

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Dr Michael Emonds is Senior Chemist at Chemetall
FURTHER INFORMATION:
Chemetall GmbH, Moenchengladbach, Germany
tel: +49 172 2610419
email: michael.emonds @ chemetall.com
web: www.chemetall.com

(0)

Unelko Corporation is pleased to offer a limited 15 year warranty on proprietary Invisible Shield® PRO 15 protective glass coating for the protection and preservation of interior and exterior glass.

Unelko Corporation, a 3rd generation, family owned business and a leader in the development of advanced nano-scale surface care technologies, is pleased to offer a limited 15 year warranty on proprietary Invisible Shield® PRO 15 protective glass coating for the protection and preservation of interior and exterior glass.

Unelko Corporation is Now Offering a 15-Year Warranty for its Cutting Edge Protective Glass CoatingMark Evitt, Managing Director of APQ Limited and a master distributor of Unelko’s products throughout Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, said Unelko is committed to offering the industry’s finest glass cleaning, protection and aftercare products, and will tailor a glass protection program suited to their customers’ needs. APQ distributes AGC glass and exclusively Unelko’s surface treatments and products.

“We have had a long relationship with Unelko using and distributing their cutting edge nano-technologies for use on glass surfaces of all kinds in many environments,” Evitt said.

“The exceptional quality of Unelko’s products, combined with their unmatched value, has allowed APQ to be extremely competitive and helped us to earn the trust of many of the most prominent names in the glass industry.”

SOURCE

(0)

VetroIN invests in safety every day, so were born the anti-seismic glass walls INWALL.

As always we support in our weekly articles, that VetroIN invests a great deal in the research sector, not only in terms of aesthetics and technology, but also in terms of safety. In particular today we talk about our anti-seismic glass walls.

Earthquakes are natural phenomena that cannot be predicted and always scares a lot. Generally when they arrive they always cause big disasters, they raze entire countries to the ground and too often they also make victims.

We from VetroIN, creators and furniture manufacturers, have the duty to search every day for solutions to secure the environments and make them as resistant as possible to these “oscillations” more or less strong. Thus were born the anti-seismic glass walls of the INWALL collection, with many of the structural elements patent pending.

This collection was presented on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of activity and great success of our company. It represents a revolution in all aspects: from aesthetics, overcoming the limits of matter, to safety, with these cutting-edge anti-seismic elements.

Architects, contact VetroIN if you have to create a truly innovative and above all safe furniture for important offices, not already old at the time of the project! Aesthetics, technology and safety… these are our new anti-seismic glass walls.

SOURCE

(0)

The collaboration with Raynergy Tek supports the company’s pursuit of high-volume production, increased power output, and enhanced transparency of SolarWindow™ products for tall towers and skyscrapers.

SolarWindow Technologies, Inc. announced today that the company has advanced collaboration with one of the world’s leading suppliers of organic photovoltaic materials, used by SolarWindow to coat ordinary glass and turn it into electricity-generating windows.

The collaboration with Raynergy Tek supports the company’s pursuit of high-volume production, increased power output, and enhanced transparency of SolarWindow™ products for tall towers and skyscrapers.

Today’s news follows a SolarWindow announcement regarding its Process Integration and Production Agreement with Triview Glass Industries LLC, an award-winning custom glass fabricator located in suburban Los Angeles.

Using its established manufacturing processes and production line, Triview will work to fabricate specific SolarWindow™ electricity-generating glass products at commercial scale by integrating SolarWindow™ coatings, methodologies and technologies. SolarWindow technologies are the subject of a wide-ranging intellectual property portfolio.

Targeting commercial buildings, which consume almost 40% of all the electricity in the United States, the company’s transparent electricity-generating windows could reduce energy costs by up to 50% and achieve a one-year financial payback for building owners, the industry’s fastest financial return, according to independently-validated power and financial modelling.

“Our clear priority is to bring SolarWindow™ electricity-generating products to a $100 billion global market,” stated Mr. John Conklin, President and CEO of SolarWindow Technologies, Inc.

“This collaboration with Raynergy moves SolarWindow closer towards our goal of commercial sales and production, while ensuring a reliable supply of high-performance organic materials and preferred pricing necessary for the production of our electricity-generating glass.”

“We see a viable and wide-open market for electricity-generating glass, and a strong pathway to commercialization for SolarWindow,” stated Dr. Phoebe Tan, Chief Executive Officer of Raynergy Tek. “Raynergy prides itself on contributing to its partners’ success, and we’re pleased to support SolarWindow in the advancement of its innovative products.”

The company is working to fabricate specific SolarWindow™ electricity-generating glass products by integrating its coating processes, methodologies and technologies into established manufacturing processes at Triview, using specialized materials provided by Raynergy.

SolarWindow & Raynergy Collaboration Pursues High-Volume Production of Electricity-Generating Windows. (Credit: Raynergy Tek)
SolarWindow & Raynergy Collaboration Pursues High-Volume Production of Electricity-Generating Windows. (Credit: Raynergy Tek)

Raynergy Tek is a world leader in organic photovoltaics (OPV) technology, headquartered in Hsinchu, Taiwan and backed by several Taiwan Public listed companies.

Raynergy focuses on specialty chemical for solution processable OPV technology, specifically Raynergy has demonstrated kilogram scale of specialized polymer production.

Furthermore, Raynergy has strong intellectual property position, and places concerted effort on the emerging clean energy market. Its solar application prototyping facility bridges the gap from lab research to manufacturing line.

The Raynergy Innovation Center, located in Hsinchu, Taiwan, develops next-generation materials in chemistry, materials science and device physics, pushing the frontier of photovoltaic technology.

SOURCE

SolarWindow

(0)

Create an open work environment even with separated office and conference rooms – Auer Weber architects and artist Brigitte Waldach faced up to this Task in regards to the new construction of the Sparkasse Allgäu.

The new Sparkasse Allgau proves impressively that office buildings don’t have to be dull and cold.

Sparkasse Allgau KemptenAuer Weber architects and artist Brigitte Waldach created a superb symbiosis from a new construction and the adjoining city park, with peaceful single offices and spacious atmosphere by using glass walls, subtle coloring in black-white-red and artfully, and loosening design with digital print onto glass.

The art-on-the-building-project spreads out on four floors. Thereby the use of the premises is already recognizable by the various designs. The offices and conference rooms are designed as open communication rooms with the motifs tree and cloud.

Whereas the management offices are decorated with grasses. By choosing such natural motifs, the building integrates itself perfectly into the adjoining city park. Another highlight: there are quotes and excerpt from a poem in the motifs.

You can find more information to this project in Thiele Glas’ reference section.

Sparkasse Allgau Kempten

Sparkasse Allgau Kempten

SOURCE

5vk3fwfcp7abhalc4pyn_400x400

(0)

Security and energy efficiency in automatic sliding doors now have a name – TORMAX Secure+Therm.

Our new door system offers certified burglary protection to resistance class RC 2, whilst using a slender, thermally separated door profile. It combines all the quality features that make your entrance a modern, valuable installation.

Fitted with the new TORMAX multipoint locking and numerous other security features, the TORMAX Secure+Therm sliding door system offers all the advantages of an automatic sliding door during business opening hours and enhanced burglary protection after closing time.

The whole system has been examined and certified by an accredited testing laboratory. And because the TORMAX Secure+Therm sliding door system has a very slender and compact thermally separated profile, you do not have to compromise on aesthetics.

Furthermore, the high performance of the TORMAX drive systems increases convenience in daily use. The overall operating costs are significantly lower than for other alternative systems.

SOURCE

(0)

AluK’s new Luminia Select Partner network was launched late last year with a number of fabricators selected to join as founder members.

They were all individually invited on the basis that they share AluK’s ethos and values in targeting the premium sector.

These companies currently have priority access to AluK’s Luminia product range, including the exciting new F82 bi-fold door, which is making huge waves in the aluminium market and already looks set to become the new benchmark door in the premium sector.

What is interesting about the Luminia Select Partner members is the mix of fabricators who are members. They vary in size and business profile and were chosen primarily because they have the most experience and best access to the premium market where the Luminia range is targeted.

Crucially, they are also the ones whom AluK believes have the resources within their businesses to effectively support the sales and marketing of the premium product range in both the trade and retail markets.

AluK’s Managing Director Russell Yates explains the strategy: “There’s such huge potential for aluminium at the moment that it’s vital we partner with the right companies to make the most of the massive opportunities which exist. With the Luminia Select Partner scheme, we have chosen the companies who we think best reflect our ambitions specifically for the premium range, and who share our vision for growing aluminium’s market share without sacrificing their own or their customers’ sales margins.

“It is not our intention to restrict membership – other companies will certainly be invited to join the network in the future if they fit that profile, and we’re getting plenty of requests to join, but we have no plans to massively expand. The important aspect for us is that this should be a genuine partnership between system supplier and fabricator – it is much more than a logo for companies to use on their website, or a lead generation vehicle like some other schemes. It is a way for us to provide very targeted support to individual businesses so that they can generate really meaningful and sustainable growth in aluminium and achieve our goals for the Luminia range together.”

The benefits for those companies who are invited to join the Luminia Select Partner scheme are immediately obvious. They get marketing and business support direct from AluK to promote Luminia products – starting with the game changing F82, they get help from project consultants in targeting and winning business, and they can also access AluK’s vast range of technical support services across design, fabrication and quotation. They are also of course, provided with bespoke product training at the new AluK Academy.

The response from members at the launch event last October and in the months that have followed has been hugely enthusiastic. Most have already attended the partner training days at the Academy centred on efficient fabrication of the F82, and, now that they have launched the door to their own customers, orders are exceeding expectations.

Russell Yates adds: “AluK has invested massively over recent years in our facilities and our processes and we have never been more streamlined or more focused on what we want to achieve in the UK. Our drive for cutting-edge aluminium innovation and market leading customer service is evident not just in our ongoing product launches but in our determination to create a partner scheme which has real tangible value for members.

“We are at the start of an exciting journey with the Luminia range with lots more premium products planned and even more customer service initiatives, which will give us an even bigger point of differentiation in a market where there is still such massive potential. To be able to share that journey with some of our most loyal and ambitious like-minded customers is going to be a real thrill.”

The AluK Luminia Select Partners are: Alpine Window and Door Systems, AluFold Direct, Arkay Windows, Capital Windows Doors and Conservatories, Climatec Windows, Complete Aluminium Systems, CWG Choices, Duration Windows, EYG, Hadleigh Glass, Iceni Windows, IQ Glass, Nolan, Quantum Windows, Rhino Aluminium, Sliders UK and Whiteline.

SOURCE

Logo - Aluk

(0)

As it is World Green Building Week, I would like to celebrate with you the overlooked heroes that can help us win the fight against climate change while making our life more comfortable: The buildings we live in.

Why should we even care about buildings?

Buildings have a huge impact on people, on our planet and on the economy.

We spend up to 90% of our time inside buildings and that means they strongly influence our health and wellbeing. Indoor air quality, acoustics, daylight, temperature…these are some of the parameters that influence the way you learn, play, work, and sleep.

Buildings are also responsible for nearly 1/4 of the global carbon emissions leading to climate change and this figure could rise to 50% by 2050 if we don’t do anything. The good news is that the solutions already exist to drastically reduce this impact…they just need to be implemented.

Finally, the construction industry is one of the world economy’s largest sectors, with $10 trillion spent on construction-related goods and services every year. It also employs about 7 percent of the world’s working-age population.

So what is a Sustainable Building?

A sustainable building is a building that takes into account People, Planet and Prosperity across all the stages of its life cycle: from raw material extraction, to construction, use and even demolition.

The European Commission developed recently the Level(s) initiative, defining the priorities for sustainable buildings:

  • Greenhouse gas emissions throughout the building’s life cycle
  • Resource efficient and circular material life cycles
  • Efficient use of water resources
  • Healthy and comfortable spaces
  • Adaptation and resilience to climate change
  • Life cycle cost and value

How do we build more of those sustainable buildings? 

The market for green buildings is growing. A recent study shows that in the Nordics, the share of certified green buildings is expected to double for new construction (from a bit less than 25% today to more than 50% in 5 to 10 years) and even more for existing buildings (from around 5% today to more than 20% in 5 to ten years).

The question is: how do we sustain this growth to ensure that sustainable buildings are becoming mainstream?

COLLABORATION

Firstly, more collaboration across the value chain is needed. If we want to build more sustainable buildings we have to change the way we work and start new partnerships across the value chain. End-users, investors, architects, contractors, construction product manufacturers, all can bring input and knowledge to the table.

This is why Saint-Gobain is strongly involved with the Green Building Councils (GBCs)across the world. We are member of more than 35 countries worldwide and in the Nordic and Baltic region we participate in all seven countries and are board member in Sweden, Denmark and Latvia.

National GBCs and the WorldGBC have made an amazing job in creating forums for discussion across the building value chain. This World Green Building Week is just one of many example of how to create momentum and discussion around sustainable construction.

Locally, innovative projects emerge and actors unite to work on solutions for the future. The REBUS (Renovating Buildings Sustainably) project is a partnership representing the entire value and knowledge chain of the building sector in Denmark. The work is aimed at social housing buildings and targets are to reduce energy consumption in the existing building stock by minimum 50%, achieve reduction in resource usage by 30%, and increase productivity 20% by industrializing building renovations, and at the same time ensure a good and healthy life inside the buildings.

SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

At Saint-Gobain we are willing to play our part in the transition towards more sustainable buildings and the circular economy. Our mission is to enhance the wellbeing of people everywhere, by combining:

•            Comfort, which answers today’s individual needs &

•            Sustainability that addresses tomorrow’s collective challenges

We develop solutions that contribute to green buildings, such as LEEDBREEAMHQEor DGNB certified buildings to only name a few. Our ISOVER glasswool is made of up to 80% recycled glass. Our Gyproc Activ’Air plasterboards decompose Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to enhance indoor climate. Our Weber Nordic floors have been redesigned leading to a CO2 footprint reduction of up to 36%. Our Ecophon solutions contribute to better acoustics environments in schools, hospitals and offices. Our SageGlassdynamic glass improves visual comfort for occupants while reducing energy consumption.

As data sharing is key in the transition towards more sustainable buildings, we provide transparent information about the environmental impact of our solutions. Our Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) are third party verified and available for our customers willing to calculate the impact of their buildings.

Finally we are working on designing more sustainable products. The Saint-Gobain Eco-Innovation approach aims at bringing differentiating value to our customers by developing innovative solutions that are having a better impact on People and Planet. More than 600 people have already been trained worldwide and are ready to co-develop the solutions of tomorrow.

To conclude, it’s up to us to make the buildings around us a solution rather than problem in the fight against climate change. For this World Green Building Week 2017, get involved and learn, share and lead the way!

SOURCE :-

Author :  Camille FABRE

(0)

The Carnarvon Fuse Art Collective presents a stunning public art piece digitally printed onto low iron, cyclonic glass.

More than a splash has been made at the Parap Pools, Darwin’s newest aquatic and leisure centre. Designed for the community as a multi-functional facility that draws people together for leisure, art, activity and national competitions – it also includes a two part artwork ‘Under The Surface’ by renowned artist, Jill Chism.

Art and architecture are seamlessly intertwined to express notions of fluidity in this tropical setting: The architecture complementing and informing the art to create a unified harmony of material across the 70m zig zag façade.

Chism worked in close collaboration with Liquid Blu Architects to integrate the built and decorative form of the façade and entrance sculpture into a holistic approach with the building design.

One component of this, being in the form of a bold glass sculpture, an expressive wave-like statement at the entrance, for which Cooling Brothers was engaged to supply DigiGlass In-Glass Printing.

Under The Surface - DigiGlass Makes Waves in the Northern Territory
© Photograph and artwork – Jill Chism

This striking entrance sculpture explores our experience with water. Chism drew inspiration from all aspects of the activity, action, sounds and movement in and around the aquatic environment.

Carefully observing and documenting the visual and sensory experience, highly detailed imagery was created by Chism for DigiGlass printing. This was applied to a sculptural shape inspired by the motion of an ocean wave.

© Photograph and artwork - Jill Chism

Cooling Brothers produced the 12 laminated glass panels, which stand arranged in fluent motion as reflections and light play upon the eye, creating a sense of aqueous movement as the viewer moves around the work. Chism describes :

Visually the expressive engagement with water creates distortion, reflection and the formation of a surprising tracery of patterns and reflected light…what we see is illusory and impermanent. The entrance sculpture and patterning on the façade were designed to replicate the sense of this activity movement and light.

© Photograph and artwork - Jill Chism
© Photograph and artwork – Jill Chism
© Photograph and artwork - Jill Chism
© Photograph and artwork – Jill Chism

As one of the first projects produced on the new printing line at Cooling Brothers, we were very excited to see the glass installed into such a significant and considered artwork in the Northern Territory.

Check out the clip to hear Chism describe the importance of community engagement, her collaborative approach that went into seeing the project come to fruition, and some on-site action.

 

PROJECT DETAILS

PARAP POOLS, DARWIN

ARTIST  JILL CHISM

ARCHITECT  LIQUID BLU ARCHITECTS

FABRICATION : ARAFURA FABRICATION

GLASS  13.32MM LOW-IRON POLAR WHITE  DIGIGLASS IN-GLASS PRINTING

FURTHER INFORMATION ON THE PROCESSES FEATURED IN THIS PROJECT CAN BE FOUND BELOW:

SOURCE

Capture

(0)