For years, Intelligent Glass have been receiving enquiries requesting the full switchable glass experience as a black out solution.
Due to the nature of switchable technology, a true black-out solution is unfortunately not possible, leaving many customers disappointed and forced to alter their vision by opting for standard switchable glass, or worse, an inferior privacy solution.
Recent innovations in the Intelligent Glass R&D division has seen the introduction of the very best alternative to this impossible technology.

We are proud to introduce ‘Switchable Black’.

Switchable Grey Opaque
Switchable Grey Clear
Operating in exactly the same way as standard switchable technology, Switchable Black offers a privacy solution much darker than previous generations of PDLC technology. Switchable glass, electric glass or smart glass are often used as umbrella terms for the range of PDLC technology currently available on the market.
PDLC technology can come in two main forms – switchable glass and switchable film. Whilst Switchable Film is a retrofit self-adhesive film, Switchable Glass offers a full privacy solution, manufactured in Intelligent Glass’s industry-leading production facilities. This allows us to integrate PDLC technology with specialist options such as fire-resistant glasssound insulating glassdouble glazed units and laminated safety glass, to name a few.
PDLC technology is best known for its privacy functionality. The surface of the switchable product changes state from frosted to clear at the press of a button, as electricity passes through the switchable layer causing the PDLC crystals to polarise and the glass to appear clear.
However, PDLC technology in its frosted state still allows some ambient light through – offering a huge benefit for many applications such as office or residential privacy. But there are instances where the impossible switchable black-out solution is specified with little room for compromise.
Many customers highly value the sleek and fuss-free make-up of switchable glass, especially when it comes to design considerations. As a result of this, it is difficult – if not impossible – to find an alternative solution that fulfils the same requirements that switchable glass can with as much style.
Switchable Black
Switchable Black offers customers the perfect compromise between a darker glass and switchable functionality, comprising of our standard switchable technology with a twist, or precisely, a tint.
Switchable Black offers a much darker tint than previously offered from the standard switchable options; blocking more light than other products, yet still retaining that essential switchable functionality.
A great option for styling requirements as well as practical functionality, Switchable Black provides more options for interior designers / architects and how they can apply privacy technology. Indeed, a standard glass tint has long been seen as a premium style option on its own, offering both a degree of shade from natural light as well as styled glass.
Switchable Black not only offers this, but also its primary function of privacy, offering users and occupants a highly usable privacy tool that holds its own as a premium investment. Sure to look incredible in corporate offices, luxury retail, hospitality and many more applications, the true beauty of switchable glass is its versatility – that is, just how many applications it can be used for.
Intelligent Glass


The new folding / sliding door system WICSLIDE 75FD is made for designing the cities of tomorrow. Its characteristic style element is creating a link between the inside and the outside.
Current architectural trends present major challenges in the search for greater dimensions, the desire to increase living space, and the need for greater modularity. With the new folding / sliding door system WICSLIDE 75FD, living and working spaces become open to their environment, both in an elegant and innovative way.
Building users of administrative or residential buildings, shops, cultural and leisure facilities benefit from being closer to nature and from an increased quality of life, especially in urban environments.
WICSLIDE 75FD – A new dimension of folding / sliding doors

Total width of up to 12 metres

With the WICSLIDE 75FD folding / sliding door system, it is possible to construct elements with a total width of more than 12000 mm and a height of more than 3000 mm, using up to 10 leaves and only few different components. The barrier-free doors can be opened both towards the inside and the outside.
Finishes on the WICSLIDE 75FD folding doors are carefully designed for visual harmony in both open and closed positions. When open, all elements are black, the screw heads and the lower rollers are concealed by black caps. When closed, the profiles are flush and their presence is dignified and balanced.
The hinges are integrated into the vertical line of the seal. All hinges and gasket seals are black; the door pull handles are coated in the same colour as the profiles and they are additionally fixed to the hinge. In the case of flat handles in profile colour, specific keys are available since each leaf can be locked separately.
WICSLIDE 75FD – A new dimension of folding / sliding doors

Ease of use and two different visible widths

The new, convincing fitting is convenient to use and characterised by a circumferential gasket seal as well as by actively controllable locking points. All elements can be moved easily. With this fitting, high infill weights are possible, i.e. up to 150 kg with sash widths from 600 mm to 1200 mm and sash heights from 700 mm to 3000 mm.
The WICSLIDE 75FD folding / sliding door is available in two versions: standard (with sight lines of 63 mm) or heavy-duty (with sight lines of 73 mm) for XXL sizes. The door threshold is equipped with brushes or, in the case of higher requirements, with gaskets. Each of the door slide mechanisms is moved by four rolls made of stainless steel.
WICSLIDE 75FD is also based on the well-known WICONA Unisys principle which provides major advantages for fabricators. Multiple use of system components promotes economic solutions and ensures process reliability since it reduces the number of profiles and accessories for different applications. Element assembly therefore is a routine and can be performed smoothly.
Read more.


Up to 70% cost savings can be achieved when using ISO-BLOCO ONE high performance foam tape from ISO-CHEMIE to install and seal windows.
The self-adhesive tape enables installers to quickly and effectively seal windows from inside the building during the construction phase. This can avoid the requirement to use time consuming and expensive external access systems, which together with associated health and safety issues, can contribute significantly to a project’s overall costs.
Moreover, because the foam sealant can be applied in the wet and rain, the installation of windows can be undertaken regardless of external weather conditions, avoiding further time consuming and costly delays.
This can add up to potential savings of hundreds of pounds per day, ISO-CHEMIE estimates.
ISO-BLOCO ONE offers a single product ‘fit and forget’ solution for fast and effective sealing based around the European RAL principles of three level sealing – the inside seal area is more airtight than the external one, allowing any trapped moisture inside the joint, or within the wall, to escape outwards rather than into the building.
The external seal area provides weather resistance and breathability, while the intermediate seal area provides extra thermal and acoustic properties and the internal one air tightness and humidity regulation.
ISO-BLOCO ONE provides a longer lasting seal for window and door joints up to 30mm wide and installation compliance to BS8313-4:2016. It is impermeable to driving rain at a minimum of 1,000 Pa – 66% higher reliability than most conventional joint sealing tapes.
The internal air tight seal has been tested at 1000 Pa pressure difference (20 times more than UK Building Regulations) and was found to give less than 0.1 m³ of air loss. At the same time, depending on tape width, it will also supply a U-Value of 0.55 and reduce sound by 63 dB, straight from the box.
Once installed, the tape ensures structures are better protected from elemental factors like wind, dust and moisture ingress by accommodating the changes in structural movement caused by environmental, cyclical and settlement factors. Product complies with energy saving regulations (EnEV) on windows and doors as well as the RAL quality assurance association and can accommodate extremes of temperature changes, from -30°C to + 80°C.
Product comes with a 10-year guarantee and is available from stock on next day delivery Service.
ISO-BLOCO ONE opens window to installation cost savings
ISO Chemie | Use the blue technology

Sawig Office is a modern and fully glazed office building located in Podgórze, a district of Krakow, Poland.
The corners of the building are rounded owing to the application of bent glass manufactured at our plant. The main contractor for the external facades of Sawig Office was AKPO RACIECHOWICE.
Sawig Office – office building with bent glass
The A class building was designed by INDO Architects studio. The original shape of the structure refers to pre-war modernism  – universal modernity was achieved owing to the minimalistic shape while maintaining the asymmetry and lightness of the building.
The Investor ensured natural lighting of the interiors by using large-sized glazing of the façade.  The use of glazed facades with diagonal aluminium lines intersecting at different angles adds originality.
Sawig Office – office building with bent glass
One should also pay attention to the rounded corners of the office building whose natural shape was achieved by application of bent glass. Interestingly, a potential linear thermal bridge was eliminated by rounding of the corners – thermal bridges tend to occur along the whole length of the corners of buildings, where two straight external walls meet.
Sawig Office
Such thermal bridges cause higher losses of thermal energy in winter or at lower temperatures, as compared to flat parts of walls, which generates extra costs. The rounded and glazed corners improve the building appearance but the advantages of such solution include additional thermal energy savings, heating savings and higher temperature indoors near the bent glass.
Sawig Office – office building with bent glass
According to the design we supplied over 1000 m2 of façade glass, including almost 100 m2  of bent, tempered and laminated triple glazed units with solar control, with the approximate parameters of 62/34. The largest size of the supplied bent glass was 1200 x 3200 mm.
Sawig Office offers about 3,000 m2 of usable area on five storeys, 2,500 m2 of which were intended for office spaces, while the remaining part will be occupied by service and trade companies. A car park is located underground.
The office building was made available for use in the first quarter of 2017.
Sawig Office

Wrightstyle has introduced a new door system that provides 90 minutes of integrity and insulation (EI90).
The new 8050 series of thermally broken fire doors are fully compatible with Wrightstyle’s SR60 curtain walling system, and provide a new level of aesthetic appeal.
Wrightstyle launches enhanced fire door systemThe door system is available in either single leaf (1606mm wide x 3062mm high or 1534mm wide x 3222mm high) or double leaf (3102mm wide x 3062mm high or 2958mm wide x 3222mm high).
The doors, which will accept glass up to 60mm thick, can be used as a stand-alone product or incorporated into Wrightstyle’s SR60 curtain walling system, to provide a complete screen or façade of 90 minutes integrity and insulation.
The new door system has been successfully fire tested, and can incorporate any EI-90 glass that has been tested into steel framing to a maximum glass area of 3.97 sq metres.
It adds a further option to Wrightstyle’s already extensive range of fire and smoke resistant doors, which include a range of unlatched doors in double or single leaf format – a breakthrough fully-glazed fire door system.
Previously, Wrightstyle’s F1 glazed door and screen system, offered non-thermally broken fire protection up to EI-60.
The new system therefore adds a further 30 minutes of protection with the significant and added benefit of thermally broken profiles.
The SR series curtain wall and roof glazing system provides architects and designers with flexibility in glass dimensions and façade design, allowing large areas to be spanned without the need for a secondary support assembly.
“The inclusion of a thermal break in this new door system gives it added insulation, while allowing for slimline steel framing,” said Denis Wright, Wrightstyle’s chairman.
“It therefore combines the protective function of an advanced steel glazing system with the sleek aesthetics that architects and designers are looking for,” he said.
Wrightstyle launches enhanced fire door system

Asahi India Glass Ltd. (AIS), India’s leading integrated glass manufacturer is proud to announce its association with designer Tarun Tahiliani for a first-of-its-kind project – AIS Glass Villa.
A fusion of contemporary and local architecture, AIS Villa is being built in the village of Nachinola in Goa.
The villa will be developed by Ahilia Homes, a boutique interior and architectural team led by the Tarun Tahiliani design house with support from AIS Glasxperts, the architectural division of AIS that specializes in applied glass.
In keeping with the spirit of India Modern, this glass and laterite villa, is a befitting tribute to the marriage of tradition and technology.
A classic Goan courtyard structure has been reinterpreted with steel columns, giant glazing fold out glass doors, and glass chambers in the bedrooms through which old trees retain their beauty, keeping the light and form, unique by any structural standards.
The villa has been designed architecturally by Sameep Padora in concert with the vision of Tarun Tahiliani and Bindu Vadera of Ahilia homes. The project is the orchestration of Jahan Tahiliani of Ahilia Homes and with the support from Glasxperts.
Nestled amidst lush green fields and the backwaters of Goa, the two-level AIS Glass Villa will have a built-up area of 6,628 sq. ft. – with 4 bedrooms, including a very natural master bedroom en suite bath, which includes a special cove study area & massage rooms – and a 2900-sq.ft.landscaped garden with a private, glass, infinity pool, all on a plot size of 16,953 sq. ft.
What sets the AIS Glass Villa apart is the unmatched use of glass in its construction, keeping both aesthetics and functionality in mind. The energy-efficient AIS glass products used for façades are designed to reduce UV radiation, while delivering other benefits such as safety, security and privacy for its residents.
Furthermore, it will also eliminate dust from entering the interiors, and reduce outside noise by up to 42 decibels, all of which will make living in the Villa a tranquil and supremely serene experience.
Speaking at the ground breaking Mr. Aditya Bhutani, COO – AIS Glasxperts said, “The AIS Glass Villa at Nachinola, Goa is based on the architectural and design guidance provided by the Tarun Tahiliani Studio, which has recast the principles of Indian craftsmanship in a contemporary avatar. The Villa is being given monumental very façade so that there is no invasion of privacy from outside. We have also used some of the best glass products from the AIS portfolio such as the burglar-proof AIS Securityglas which delivers a very high level of intrusion resistance, AIS Décor coloured lacquered glass, and the energy-efficient AIS Ecosense, which is considered to be the green standard in glass, to name just a few. With our expertise in glass selection and installation, we’re going to ensure that while the aesthetic value of the AIS Villa is high, it does not compromise on the functional aspects of a living space, so the Villa is just beautiful to look at, but will also be very safe and comfortable to live in.”
Mr. Tarun Tahiliani added, “In our architectural projects, we have always looked at what made Goan homes special. What has stood the best of time, what should be retained and what should be replaced or enhanced by technology to ensure that the user experience is sublime, in this return to nature. Enter Sameep Padora, the architect, the use of cutting-edge glass products & solutions blending with the other building materials, has given birth to a unique Villa by the river. The three main features of the living room are the double-height ceiling, suken seating pit and a dining around a cluster of trees almost at the level of water. The dining room also includes a game corner which is built around the smaller courtyard around the cluster of existing matured trees”.
The AIS Glass Villa is scheduled to be ready by July/August 2018.
Asahi India Glass Limited

Jane Embury, a director of steel glazing company Wrightstyle, looks at fire safety in shopping centres. Wrightstyle systems can be found in shopping centres worldwide.
The tragic fire in a Siberian shopping centre earlier this year underlines once again how even the most seemingly-safe places can be made dangerous by poor design and human stupidity.
When shopping centres catch fireSome 41 children were among the 64 people killed at the Winter Cherry shopping centre in the Russian city of Kemerovo, a blaze made worse by the fact that fire exits were blocked and the centre’s public address system was switched off.
However, the Russian fire isn’t the worst shopping centre fire on record.  That happened in 2004 in Paraguay, and was caused by a spark in a fast food outlet.
That comparatively minor incident in the Ycuá Bolaños supermarket on the outskirts of Asunción, the country’s capital city, went on to orphan over 200 children.

Fire investigators

International fire investigators found that the fire started in an improperly-maintained grill located in the centre’s food court. The fire then spread downwards to the underground garage, where a car exploded, bringing down the centre’s ground floor into the basement.
The final toll was 364 dead, nine simply “disappeared,” and nearly 500 injured. Forty-six children died. The sheer scale of the tragedy so overwhelmed local health services that burns victims were also treated in nearby Uruguay.
The Paraguay fire started with just an ember from a chimney, and that’s how most catastrophic fires begin – often just a dropped cigarette or a spark from faulty wiring. However, if dealt with adequately, most fires pose little threat. But when a fire does take hold, occupants must be able to get out quickly and safely.
It sometimes seems that the lessons of the past are inadequately learned. The operators of the Russian shopping centre could, for example, have learned from the 2012 Villagio mall fire in Qatar which killed 19 people, including 13 children and two firefighters.
Like the Winter Cherry mall fire, it too started with an electrical fault. The fire alarm, according to an eyewitness, sounded almost “like a door bell” – and which many people ignored, some because there had been a recent false alarm. Also, an emergency exit was closed.  In other words, exactly the same set of faults and stupidities.

Fuel loads

The fact is that shopping centres can be extremely complex, with potentially large fuel loads and equally large numbers of people within a series of spaces that can include hotels, food courts, cinemas, restaurants, bars, as well as offices, with most people unfamiliar with the shopping centre’s layout and exits.
That’s why compartmentation is so important, dividing the building into discrete fire zones, with retardant materials to limit the spread of fire, and an adequate sprinkler system able to extinguish the fire at source.
That’s  also where our advanced systems come in, tested together to US and European standards, and subjected to furnace temperatures of well over 1000˚c – testing the strength of the glass, the protective level of the glazing system, and their overall capability to maintain compartmentation in a fire situation.
The main lesson from Russia, Qatar and Paraguay is that fire can spread with devastating speed, particularly in a large open space such as a supermarket or shopping centre. The key is containment, trapping the fire, and allowing people to escape along protected evacuation routes to emergency exits that aren’t blocked or locked shut.
Surely that isn’t too difficult to legislate for?


Neoclassical residence of the German Embassy in Chile gets new lattice windows with Thermix from Ensinger.
How heritage preservation can be reconciled with energy efficiency in the renovation of historic buildings is demonstrated by a German-Chilean construction project in Santiago, Chile.
Single-glazed lattice windows have been replaced with highly-insulating safety windows and doors with Thermix Warm Edge spacers and Thermix muntin bars.
Spacers as ambassadors
Chile is one of Latin America’s leading industrial nations and one of the biggest producers of raw materials. The country, situated between the Andes and the Pacific, is barely 200 km wide but is 4200 km in length, stretching from the Atacama desert in the north to the Antarctic in the south.
About half way down lies the political, economic and cultural centre of the country, the capital Santiago; around 45 percent of Chileans live in the area surrounding this city.

Renovated to be earthquake- and future-proof

The German embassy is located in the district of Vitacura, and the ambassador’s residence in the nearby exclusive residential area of Las Condes.
Owing to their neoclassical façade, the main house (built in 1944) and the annexe for staff (from 1959) are part of a group of ‘listed’ structures along with a large number of the neighbouring buildings.
A survey, however, showed that the building was “acutely at risk from earthquakes”. A few years ago a precautionary evacuation took place for safety reasons.
Spacers as ambassadors
“To make it fit to withstand earthquakes we have now reinforced the primary supporting structure”, explains Oliver Heckel, Project Manager for Overseas Properties at the Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung (BBR) [Federal Agency for Building and Regional Planning].
“In order to keep intervention to a minimum, the interior of the building was reinforced with a ferroconcrete core across all storeys. In the course of this measure, all technical facilities, interior fittings, the façades and windows and also the outdoor facilities were modernised in compliance with the laws on listed buildings.”
Spacers as ambassadors

German-Chilean construction project

Since 1955, the building has belonged to the Federal Republic of Germany. This resulted in particular challenges during the renovation: On the one hand, it was desirable to use local standards and partners in the construction work, both for reasons of cost and efficiency and to ensure that maintenance would be carried out.
On the other hand, some German standards also had to be satisfied. This affected the EU tendering procedure for public contracts prior to the renovation and the requirements relating to the safety and energy efficiency of the building.
The tender was ultimately won by a team of architects, in the capacity of general planners, based in both Germany and Chile. A distance of 12,523 km – as the crow flies – separates the founders of FAR, who have been working together at the RWTH Aachen since their degrees.
Marc Frohn lives in Berlin and Mario Rojas in Santiago. For the internationally networked architects, distance and proximity are the keys to forging new types of connections, for example when renovating old buildings in Chile according to German energy efficiency criteria.

Marrying heritage preservation with energy efficiency

“The importance of energy efficiency has long been recognised in Chile. For example, since 2011 there has been a classification system for energy-efficient buildings, albeit a voluntary one”, explains Mario Rojas.
“It is clear that the requirements are getting more rigorous, what is unclear is when and how.” To get clear guidance, the BBR had the residence of the ambassador examined following the rigorous requirements of German energy-saving legislation (EnEV) at the start of 2014.
Spacers as ambassadors
The building simulation showed that a long-term improvement in the energy balance could be achieved by installing new windows. Because of the certifications required by the BBR, which are not customary in Chile, FAR contacted LIP-GmbH in Bad Salzuflen, a specialist in insulated safety windows and doors.
The latter decided on double insulated glass panes by Nowak Glas, Bochum, with Thermix spacers from Ensinger, in some cases with Thermix muntin bars to replace the lattice windows.

Safety with very narrow tolerances

Thermix spacers consist of highly insulating plastic with a diffusion barrier made from stainless steel. They optimise the thermal separation of the insulated glass panes, minimise condensation at the glass edge and enable windows with a very good UWvalue.
“In addition, Thermix is rigid and more stable than flexible spacers”, explains Andreas Mertens, Sales Manager at Nowak Glas. “This has advantages when it comes to large glass formats and laminated safety glass”.
Wolfgang Olschewsky, Managing Director of LIP-GmbH, was flown in specially to take the measurements of the 55 windows with a total area of around 235 m2 .
“Extremely narrow installation tolerances had to be complied with in this project; in the bathroom, in particular, the position of the windows had to precisely match the grid of the hand-made wall tiles”.
When the window elements that had been custom-made in Germany arrived in Chile, he was back there again to supervise and ensure precise installation.
Spacers as ambassadors
Now, new oak-framed safety windows and doors with a UW of 1.3 W/m2K ensure constant temperatures in the residence. The climate in Santiago is generally mild, but there are often abrupt temperature changes.
And, time and again, there is an earthquake – like for example the one two weeks after the handover of the building, with an intensity of 8.2. But the reinforced building easily deals with turbulence, symbolising the sustainability of foreign relations maintained in a far-sighted manner.
For more information, go to: www.bbr.bund.de
Thermix Logo


Beautiful Railings for an Innovative Surgical Care Setting.
While the term “orthopedics” may have a cold, mechanical connotation, the designers of the Summit Orthopedics surgery center in Eagan, Minn., wanted to create an environment that was anything but technical.
Summit Orthopedics Eagan Clinic & Surgery Center
For this project, TCP’s Line Series was installed to provide both beauty and stable support to patients, while the exterior of the building features TCP’s aluminum-framed Tensiline stainless cable railing.
Summit Orthopedics Eagan Clinic & Surgery Center
The interior Line Series stair application includes 1.5” stainless steel wall and post-mounted handrails, skillfully bent to achieve a fluid aesthetic around corners and other radius designs. In addition, the installation’s laminated tempered glass has a .06” white opaque PVB interlayer between two 1/4” panels, creating an 80 percent transparent infill for a bright, airy atmosphere.

The 1.5” stainless steel handrail is skillfully bent to achieve a fluid aesthetic around corners and other radius designs.
The 1.5” stainless steel handrail is skillfully bent to achieve a fluid aesthetic around corners and other radius designs.

Outside, TCP’s Tensiline cable railing offers an ideal choice for the exterior. This guardrail boasts an anodized aluminum frame with 316 stainless steel cable infill.
Summit Orthopedics Eagan Clinic & Surgery Center
With patients flying in to the renowned clinic from across the country, the goal was to create an inviting space that would enhance patient experience and perhaps even hasten their recovery by encouraging healing. Trex Commercial Products is proud to have worked with the teams at Pope Architects, Inc., Welsh Architecture, RJM Construction, Brin Contract Glazing and D & M Iron Works to make this vision a reality.
Summit Orthopedics Eagan Clinic & Surgery Center
Summit Orthopedics Eagan Clinic & Surgery Center


Leading systems supplier Spectus offers everything today’s fabricators and installers need: products that work in all sectors, the broadest range of ancillaries to make life easy and outstanding marketing support.
Carmen Velilla, Brand Manager of Spectus says: “When you choose a systems company, you need to choose one that offers a complete package and gives your business everything it needs to achieve its goals. In Spectus that’s exactly what you get.”
Spectus systems mean you can make any style of window or door and compete in every sector, whether it’s trade, retail, new build or commercial. There’s the Elite 63 and Elite 70 for casements and tilt & turns, the Spectus VS for vertical sliders and the FRW reversible system. Patio doors, formers, and curtain walling complete the range.
The product range is complemented with a range of over 80 ancillaries covering colour, specification, style, decorative finishing touches and double and triple glazing options. They’re all designed to give the customer as much personalisation and individualisation as they need with no compromises and allow installers to fit a perfect job.
Effective marketing is critical to the success of every business and the Spectus offering is second to none. There are bespoke marketing packages, as well as lead generation and opportunities to tender.
Spectus customers also get the sales advantage of Excellence as Standard. It’s a programme designed to drive quality at every level of the industry. Membership gives customers the tools they need to build their business including lead generation and marketing support.
Carmen concludes: “We’ve been making PVC-U  window and door systems since 1981. The market has changed out of all recognition since then but we’ve thrived because of the quality of our manufacturing, the strength of our design and our customer service. We’ve kept those three principles at the heart of our business throughout and they’re the reasons we can offer such a complete package to our customers today.”



Sleek, Modern Option Designed for Decks with Cable and Horizontal Rod Railing.
Among the hottest looks in outdoor living today are cable and horizontal rod railing. Capitalizing on this growing trend toward more modern, commercially-inspired looks, Trex® Spiral Stairs™has added a new Multi-Line Handrail system to its collection.
Designed specifically to complement the view-enhancing spacing and sleek styling of cable and rod railing, this new option also provides a functional, space-saving alternative to standard stairs.
“As homeowners increasingly gather inspiration from commercial spaces such as hotels and urban rooftops, they are incorporating sleeker, more modern finishes and accessories into their outdoor living spaces,” said Adam Zambanini, vice president of marketing for Trex Company. “The new Multi-Line system from Trex Spiral Stairs is an ideal match for modern outdoor spaces, providing a cohesive look that marries perfectly with cable and horizontal rod railing designs.”
The ultra-thin, metallic railing balusters of the Multi-Line system create the illusion of cascading cable railing winding its way down the staircase, while offering the strength and durability of stainless steel. In addition, the system can be enhanced with dimmable LED riser lights from Trex® Outdoor Lighting™, adding both style and safety to any outdoor living space.
The Multi-Line system joins a dozen different Trex Spiral Stairs options, all of which are designed to meld seamlessly with high-performance Trex decking and railing systems. In fact, the treads themselves are available with same high-performance, low-maintenance technology as the Trex Transcend® decking collection, and are offered in all Transcend hues.
Trex Spiral Stairs are manufactured and sold by The Iron Shop, based in Pennsylvania, under a trademark licensing agreement with Trex. The system also comes with an all-inclusive 25-year craftsmanship and defects warranty and five-year all-inclusive finish warranty for additional peace of mind.
For more information, visit
Trex® Spiral Stairs™ introduces new Multi-Line railing system

This article will focus on the edge stability of PVB and ionoplast laminates and address the potential causes of blemishes.


The use of laminated safety glass in outdoor applications continues to increase, and as a result, questions about edge stability often arise. This is especially true where exposed edges are required to eliminate any sightline obstructions.
Although the vast majority of laminated glass will never experience any edge blemishes, sometimes it does happen. This paper will focus on the edge stability of PVB and ionoplast laminates and address the potential causes of blemishes.


The role of glass in building construction has drastically changed in recent years. Laminated glass is now being used for safety, security, structural, and decorative components of buildings. With the increased application of laminated glass, as well as the recent code changes for balustrades in North America, laminated glass is being specified more and more for exposed edge applications.
Although the vast majority of exposed edge laminates will never experience issues, sometimes blemishes around the edges may occur. When these do appear, they can compromise the visual appeal of laminated glass.
There are a few reasons edge blemishes may appear, including the lamination process, compatibility with other building components, and the choice of the right interlayer for the application. This paper will focus on edge stability and discuss the potential causes of edge blemishes in laminated glass.


What is edge stability of laminated glass? Edge stability is defined as the ability for the edges of laminated glass to resist discoloration, bubbling, delamination, or other blemishes over time when exposed to environmental conditions.
In addition to natural and accelerated weather via different test methods or regulations such as ANSI Z97.1, or ISO 12543-4, similar tests may be initiated to investigate the performance of the laminates in regards to specific installation conditions, such as high temperature, salt (fog) spray, or compatibility to sealants, grouts, and glass coatings.
Laminates with ionoplast interlayer have repeatedly performed well in edge stability testing. While laminates with traditional PVB have also performed well, they are more likely to experience edge blemishes. Although it may be difficult to determine the exact cause of the blemish after the fact, the potential reasons may be classified into two areas, the lamination process and the application conditions.
Lamination Process and Edge Defects The lamination process brings together heat and pressure, or vacuum, to remove the air and melt the interlayer between the lites of glass. Throughout the process, there are a few variables that play an important role in the edge stability of a laminate. These variables are adhesion of the interlayer to the glass, the quality of the glass, and edge seal.


The adhesion of the interlayer to the glass plays a major role in the edge stability of the finished laminate. As the adhesion level lowers, the likelihood for belmishes increases. During the lamination process, there are many factors that may affect the adhesion level.
The first factor is the cleanliness of the glass. When the glass arrives at the laminator, it can have cutting oil, release agents, dust, and other impurities on the surface. The glass must first be cleaned before lamination may begin. Modern glass washing machines are equipped with rotating brushes that clean the glass exceptionally well with only water.
Since the cleanliness of the glass surface and the quality of the water affect the adhesion of the interlayer to the glass, only demineralized water is recommended. The water should have a conductivity less than 20µS. Water from natural or municipal sources contains dissolved salts that impart hardness to the water. These salts are typically composed of Ca++, Mg++, Na+, and K+ ions.
The former two negatively affects adhesion even in low concentrations, while the latter two have a lesser but still measureable effect. The loss of adhesion, especially at the edge, may lead to edge bubbles or delamination Moisture content of the interlayer is the second key factor for adhesion.
PVB is hygroscopic, and its adhesion to glass is inversely related to its moisture content. It is produced with an optimum moisture content around 0.4%, and then the roll is hermetically sealed in a foil bag to prevent moisture absorption.
Once the foil packaging is open though, the PVB will start to absorb moisture from the air until an equilibrium is reached. To prevent this, any open rolls of PVB should be stored in an environment with a relative humidity between 25-30%. It is also recommended to replace the foil packaging and seal it, especially if the storage conditions are not adequate.
For ionoplast interlayer, it too absorbs moisture, but at a much slower rate. Because its optimum moisture content is lower than PVB though, it is recommended to always reseal the foil packaging, unless it is stored in the clean room below 10% relative humidity. The effects of either interlayer absorbing moisture is a reduction in the adhesion and potentially bubbles.
The adhesion between the interlayer and the glass is governed heavily by the ability of the polar groups from the interlayer to bond with the polar groups of the glass surface. Figure 1 depicts how good adhesion is formed through the hydrogen bonds between the polyalcohol groups of the PVB interlayer and the silanol groups of the glass.
In contrast, figure 2 shows how moisture content and ions from the wash water can reduce the adhesion by blocking the hydrogen bonds. Reduced adhesion at the edges may result in water ingress, blushing, bubbles, and or delamination.

Figure 1 Example of good adhesion
Figure 1 Example of good adhesion
Figure 2 Example of poor adhesion caused by moisture and ions
Figure 2 Example of poor adhesion caused by moisture and ions

Quality of the Glass

Most of the glass used for lamination today is produced by the float process. Although standard float glass, also referred to as annealed glass, is of high quality and very flat, it not considered safety glass since it breaks into large, sharp, dangerous pieces.
The bending tensile strength of annealed glass is also relatively weak. To make it safer and stronger, the glass is subjected to a thermal strengthening process. The annealed glass is heated to approximately 600°C, and then cooled rapidly with jets of air.
The rate of cooling determines the degree of strengthening by locking the surface of the glass in a state of compression. The faster the cooling, the higher the compression, and the stronger and safer the glass becomes.
Fully tempered glass is cooled faster than heat-strengthened glass making it much stronger and giving it a smaller, safer break pattern. For lamination though, the potential issue with thermally strengthened glass is the inherent distortion imparted on it from the process. When the glass is heated that hot, it can start to deform and become wavy.

Figure 3 Typical distortions of heat treated glass
Figure 3 Typical distortions of heat treated glass

This distortion can result in an overall waviness, a general or local bow, or edge curl. Figure 3 depicts the typical distortions.
There has been a great improvement over the last few years with tempering furnaces, and some of the newer furnaces can produce exceptionally flat glass, but care must be taken to use the flattest glass possible for lamination.
Even the values specified in ASTM C1048 are not tight enough for lamination. A general rule is that the deviation of flatness should be below 10% of the interlayer thickness.
For a 0.76 mm interlayer, the maximum flatness deviation would be 0.076 mm. A deviation larger than this tolerance on the edge has the potential to develop bubbles or delaminate.
A laboratory study was initiated to determine the effect that edge curl has on the finished laminate. Two types of laminates were prepared using tempered glass with edge curl, see figure 4.

Figure 4 Orientation of edge curl in tested samples
Figure 4 Orientation of edge curl in tested samples

Orientation A matched the curls together so that they were nested, while orientation B placed the curls in opposite directions. The gap between the two lites of glass was measured and sample A had a gap of 0.05mm whereas sample B had a gap of 0.65mm.
The samples were then laminated using 0.76mm PVB and autoclaved together. After the autoclave, the samples were stored under high heat and humidity for several months at 85°C and 85% relative humidity. Samples with orientation A showed no visible blemishes, however, orientation B had numerous edge bubbles, see figure 5.

Figure 5 Edge bubbles after weathering of orientation B sample
Figure 5 Edge bubbles after weathering of orientation B sample


Edge Seal

The autoclaving process is the last step in the production of laminated glass. The conditions inside the autoclave allow for viscous flow of the interlayer resulting in an intimate contact with the glass. Any remaining air is dissolved and dispersed creating a clear laminate.
Once the laminates have been de-aired, they are placed on autoclave racks. There should be space between the laminates to allow channels for air flow to ensure even heating and cooling. The glass should be secured in position on the racks so there is very little movement during the autoclave cycle.
Excessive movement may lead to glass breakage. When securing the laminates, care must be taken to avoid excessive localized pressure. The localized pressure may lead to the interlayer extruding from the edges, creating a thinning of the interlayer at that point. This could lead to edge bubbles or delamination.
Once on the racks, the laminates should be placed as quickly as possible in the autoclave. Excessive delays could result in the edges beginning to separate, especially if the edge seal was not good. The autoclave is then heated to 135-145°C while pressurizing to 12-15 bars.

Figure 6 Edge bubbles present after autoclave
Figure 6 Edge bubbles present after autoclave

Once top heat and pressure is reached, it is held for at least 30 minutes, but the length of time is dependent on the glass thickness and load size. After the hold time is up, the glass is allowed to cool down while still under pressure.
The pressure should not be released until the interlayer/glass temperature is below 50°C, otherwise, small champagne or finger-like bubbles may start to appear, see figure 6.
Application Conditions and Edge Blemishes Besides the conditions of the laminating process, how and with what the laminate is installed with may potentially cause edge blemishes.
There are a variety of different ways to install laminated glass, while different, there are some basic precautions that should be followed for all installations. The first of which is contact with water.
Even with the best lamination conditions, laminated glass should not be allowed to sit in water for an extended period of time. For applications where the laminate has captured sides, weep holes or other ways for any accumulated water to drain should be included.
For exposed edge applications, drainage should be adequate enough as to not allow standing water to remain in contact with the laminate.

Figure 7 Delamination around point support fitting
Figure 7 Delamination around point support fitting

This is also true for point supported glass. If the point supports are not sealed properly, water can infiltrate the opening and may lead to delamination, as seen in figure 7.
In addition to water, any other chemical that may be in contact with the edge of the laminate should be tested for compatibility. This is especially relevant to sealants and grouts. Incompatibility of the sealant and grouts with the interlayer may result in edge bubbles, discoloration, or delamination.
There are a variety of sealants on market. While most are compatible with ionoplast laminates, PVB laminates may experience some minor edge blemishes. It is best to contact the sealant or interlayer manufacturer to determine compatibility.
As North America begins to move toward laminated glass for balustrades, and away from monolithic tempered glass, the topic of grouts has become increasingly popular. As discussed in the 2007 GPD paper “Outdoor glass baluster – new challenges,” cement-based grouts are not recommended for contact with laminated glass.
The last potential cause of edge blemishes is the environmental conditions where the laminate is installed and what interlayer is used. Is the laminate indoors, or outdoors? Is it in a dry environment, or a wet one? Is it close to an ocean? Is PVB used or ionoplast? Based upon these answers, different edge stability levels may be achieved.
For example, can ionomer laminates be installed in an open edge balustrade by the beach? To answer this question, salt spray testing was performed.

Salt Spray (Fog) Testing

Salt Spray (Fog) Test, is a standard corrosion test usually done on coated metal products in the architectural industry. However, it is starting to be requested for laminated glass railing applications in exposed edge conditions for coastal climates.
The testing is an accelerated weathering test based on ASTM B117 “Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus.” The samples are exposed to 3,000 hours at 35°C while misted with a 5% NaCl water solution. The samples are removed and inspected at 500 hour increments and then returned to the chamber.
Four laminates were prepared with one being the control sample and three subjected to the weathering. The results were as predicted for the ionoplast laminates. After 3,000 hours, there were no visible edge defects noticed, figure 8.
Standard PVB however, began to experience a clouding of the edges around 1,000 hours, figure 9. In addition to standard PVB, our high adhesion grade PVB was also tested. As stated earlier, adhesion is a key factor in edge stability, and after 3,000 hours, the high adhesion PVB showed no signs of cloudiness or other edge defects, figure 10.

Figure 8 SentryGlas® ionomer after 3,000 hours in the salt spray test
Figure 8 SentryGlas® ionomer after 3,000 hours in the salt spray test
Figure 9 Standard PVB after 1,000 hours in the salt spray test
Figure 9 Standard PVB after 1,000 hours in the salt spray test
Figure 10 Trosifol BG R20 high adhesion PVB after 3,000 hours in the salt spray test
Figure 10 Trosifol BG R20 high adhesion PVB after 3,000 hours in the salt spray test



The use of laminated glass for exposed edge applications is increasing, and as such, so are the questions about edge stability. While the majority of laminates will never experience edge blemishes, it can sometimes happen.
Edge blemishes can be attributed to the lamination process, compatibility of materials, and choosing the right interlayer. When properly laminated and installed, the potential for edge blemishes decreases, leaving a clearer view.


[1] Kuraray Trosifol: Technical Manual, The Processing of PVB Film, Sixth edition, Kuraray Europe GmbH, 2012
[2] Keller, U. & Mortelmans, H.: Adhesion in Laminated Safety Glass – What mankes it work?, Conference Proceedings, Glass Performance Days, pp. 353-356, 1999.
[3] Kuraray Glass Laminating Solutions: SentryGlas® Ionoplast Interlayer Technical Manual For Structural Engineers, Kuraray, 2014
[4] Schmidt, M. & Nugent, W.: Outdoor Glass Baluster – New Challenges, Conference Proceedings, Glass Performance Days, pp. 206-209, 2007.

  • Vaughn Schauss, Kuraray America Inc. | Stefan Hiss, Kuraray Europe GmbH
  • | First presented at GPD 2017 – go to for more info and 2019 plans

ent and tempered glass has long been of great interest to the market. The process of creating high-quality tempered bent glass has evolved over the years. Continued research and development, the best use of the latest technology and the experience of industry experts have opened up new dimensions in glass.
Such a common material is glass that it’s easy to forget we still don’t understand its full capabilities. Bent glass has been used in buildings since the early nineteenth century. But it wasn’t until the 1990s, with the development of the first horizontal tempering machine with a bending furnace, that bent tempered glass of sufficiently good optical quality became generally available. Still, there were quite a few limitations and constraints.
Many efforts have been made to improve the technology over the last years, to improve methods and techniques of processing tempered bent glass and also to process top quality.

The bending and tempering process in brief

Modern horizontal bending and tempering lines commonly operate like this:

  1. The flat glass is first heated to over 630 °C − until red hot.
  2. Once heated, the glass is moved within the furnace into the bending station, where it is bent to its target radius.
  3. The glass can be twisted into the direction in which the glass flows, which is known as lengthwise bending.
  4. It can also be bent crosswise across the glass flow, which is called crosswise bending.
  5. The bent glass is then tempered by cooling to trap high energy forces within the glass.
  6. The bent and tempered glass comes out of the furnace.

It’s fair to say the main stages of this process have not changed much since the 90s. But technologies have.
Glaston ProBend Bending and Tempering system

Bent tempered glass is welcome for a reason

There are several other common methods for curving or bending glass. These include hot bending, lamination bending, bending and tempering and cold bending. However, only the bending and tempering method has the advantages that make it so attractive to modern architects and designers.
First of all, tempered curved glass is safety glass. When broken, it is harmless to people. Therefore, where a high degree of safety is required, such as in windows, curtain walls, balustrades or skylights, it becomes the most practical type of curved glass.
Secondly, bent and tempered glass offers greater resistance to mechanical and thermal loads, as well as durability against temperature variations. In fact, tempered bent glass withstands up to five times more mechanical strain than bent annealed glass – again making it more useful from the contractors’ perspective.
Last but not least, bent and tempered glass is cheaper to produce than hot-bent laminated glass, since it’s done in a single process and doesn’t require lamination.

The ability to curve and temper glass simultaneously has helped to put glass material on a more advanced level, adding considerable value to the end product.

Bent glass brings elegance and energy to any designed space, whether it is an architectural building or just part of your latest home appliance. It gives an artistic focal point to natural light within interior spaces. But above all comes the assurance that tempered bent glass meets safety requirements. This is valued the most.
To discover more about the technology, read: Curved glass: an obstacle or opportunity in glass architecture?
Glaston glass sauna

Where we are today?

In general, the bending and tempering technique has advanced to a new standard today – far from what it was a decade ago. However, some constraints still do exist. These involve limits on maximum size, weight, glass thickness and also limitations with extreme forms.
For now, these constraints must be taken into account in the design of glass constructions. However, glass processing equipment manufacturers are challenging themselves to overcome them. And since technologies are evolving rapidly, they will soon completely reshape the process, allowing glass processors to reach beyond limitations.

For example, it’s now possible to temper and bend a much wider range of sizes and thicknesses, thanks to the latest achievements. Among them is an innovative machine that for the first time averts any optical issues – a problem of the past. Now, with correct technology, reaching a top-quality optical result from each run is no longer difficult.

What was considered a decade ago to be practically impossible is now a cost-effective and adaptable way of producing quality curved safety glass with minimal changeover time, no anisotropy issues and zero tooling. Now, machines are even available to soft-coat bent building glass.

The future of bent tempered glass

The interest in curved glass forms continues to grow. It will grow even more, once designers and architects understand the latest achievements in bending and tempering.
Bent tempered glass is no longer experimental. Thanks to ongoing R&D and the new technological transformations, custom bent glass is bringing the beauty of form with function to the designs and applications of tomorrow, creating new potential for the world of glass. It can be now a quality economical and safe material with tens of thousands of shapes.

The world is curved. So should be the glass − and our thinking. There is no excuse for forcing old flat glass designs, now that we can finally put our trust in curved forms.

See more about bent glass in practice: Use of hot bent glass. Case: 252 East 57th Street, New York
Use of curved glass



Grove at Grand Bay’s swirl-shaped towers take hurricane-resistance to new heights while earning LEED Gold certification.
Grove at Grand Bay, an upscale 98-unit Florida condominium featuring an innovative hurricane-resistant design and Solarban® 72Starphire® glass by Vitro Architectural Glass (formerly PPG Glass), was named the 2017 Building of the Year, U.S. Southeast Region, by The Architect’s Newspaper.
Located in Coconut Grove and designed by renowned Danish architectural firm Bjarke Ingels Group, Grove at Grand Bay consists of two 20-story towers coiled into identical tornado-like twists that provide a stylized buffer against hurricane-force winds while offering residents optimal views of the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay.

Grove at Grand Bay

Windows and 12-foot-high floor-to-ceiling sliding glass doors for the $400-million project were fabricated by Tecnoglass with hurricane-resistant, insulated Solarban 72 glass laminated with three lites of Starphire glass.
The railings and balconies are laminated with two lites of Starphire glass. Tecnoglass engineers designed the doors using three pieces of ¼-inch Solarban 72 glass.
A composite core of concrete and steel internal plates for the towers’ shear walls enabled the building engineers to limit their thickness to 30 inches, less than half the 6-foot thickness required by local building codes for such structural reinforcements.
Additional stability is provided by the installation of cambered, or arched, floor plates and pressure-injected auger-cast piles averaging 80 feet in depth.
When Hurricane Irma’s 100-mph winds made landfall in September 2017, Jason Gilg, senior development manager of Terra Group, the building’s owner, said Grove at Grand Bay “did extremely well—including the hurricane-impact glass.”
The Building of the Year award recognizes distinct innovation, creative use of new technology, sustainability and superlative design. It is one of several categories in The Architect’s Newspaper’s annual “Best of Design Awards,” which showcase great buildings and building elements.
The condominium had previously received several honors, including two Architizer A+Awards (Jury Prize Winner and the Popular Choice Winner in the Engineering category), the American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC) of New York’s 2016 engineering excellence award and a 2016 Concrete Reinforced Steel Institute (CRSI) Honors Award in the Residential Building category.
The first LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Gold Certified residential building in Miami-Dade County, Grove at Grand Bay incorporates multiple sustainable design measures. They include an 80 percent reduction in the amount of potable water for irrigation and the installation of high-efficiency chillers and variable-speed exhaust in the heating and cooling systems. The project also features recycled and locally sourced materials, and sustainably harvested wood.
Completed in 2016, Grove at Grand Bay is the tallest twisting structure in the Western Hemisphere and the first of its kind in the United States.
Formulated with the industry’s most advanced triple-silver coating that is engineered for use on Starphire Ultra-Clear® glass, Solarban 72 glass has visible light transmittance (VLT) of 71 percent with a solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of 0.30 and a light-to-solar gain (LSG) ratio of 2.37.
To learn more about Solarban 72 glass or Starphire glass by Vitro Architectural Glass, visit


Standing more than 1,000 feet in the air and extending out 65 feet from the 100th floor of 30 Hudson Yards, it will be the highest outdoor observation deck in the Western Hemisphere, and the fifth highest in the world. The observation deck is scheduled to open in late 2019.

The Hudson Yards Observation Deck will be made up of 15 primary sections, each weighing between 35,000 and 100,000 pounds. Bolted together and anchored to the east and south sides of the building, the 765,000 pound observation deck will create a 7,500-square-foot outdoor viewing area. A nine-foot tall angled glass wall will encircle the deck, and a window in the floor will provide a once-in-a-lifetime look at the neighborhood below.
KPF’s 30 Hudson Yards will stand 1,296 feet tall and offer state-of-the-art commercial office space for its tenants, which include DNB Bank, Kohlberg, Kravis & Roberts (KKR), Time Warner Inc. and Wells Fargo, among others. In addition to the Hudson Yards Observation Deck, the building has direct access to The Shops & Restaurants at Hudson Yards and a direct connection to the No. 7 Subway station. The LEED Gold-designed tower is on track to top out this summer.
“The design of our two towers at Hudson Yards is based on our intention of making overt responses to all aspects of the surrounding urban landscape,” said Bill Pedersen, Founding Design Partner of KPF. “The most dramatic of these gestures will be the observation deck which cantilevers 65 feet out into space from the top of 30 Hudson Yards reaching out, almost as an invitation, to all of Manhattan. Together with the Vessel, these dramatic architectural structures are included in Hudson Yards for all to enjoy.”

The complete renovation of Jardines de Nivaria 5* hotel in Tenerife seizes the exclusive design, safety and ease of installation of Comenza railing systems.
The results were outstanding, having totally changed the appearance of the hotel, both on the outside and on the inside.
Jardines de Nivaria Renovation | Comenza railing systems
After the integral reform, the Jardines de Nivaria 5* Hotel (part of the Adrian Hotels group) has become one of the references of high standing tourism and events in the south of Tenerife area, and furthermore, one of the most luxurious hotels on the island by its own right.
In addition, the hotel’s new facilities were one of the reasons that have made the new hotel worthy of the TUI Holly 2017 award, with a qualification of 9.4 out of 10 awarded by the hotel customers.

The team of architects at Impulsarq handled the renovation, which endured for five months, and resulted in an investment of more than 13 million euros. The results were outstanding, having totally changed the appearance of the hotel, both on the outside and on the inside.
The replacement of the old metal railings of the façade by modern glass railing systems from Comenza have been a significant and positive change, both in aesthetics and functionality. The glass railing systems of choice were Comenza GlassFit SV-1301 and Comenza GlassFit SV-1303 with RP-1400 handrail.
Jardines de Nivaria Renovation | Comenza railing systems
Visually, Comenza systems provide a cutting-edge, minimalist and elegant design. In the functional aspect, the GlassFit railing systems of Comenza eliminate all obstacles to light and favor spectacular sights from all the suites and rooms of the hotel.
Plus, Comenza glass railings provide guaranteed maximum safety standards for their users, given that they have successfully completed load tests according to strict construction regulation standards for this type of environment and use cases.
The icing on the cake of this renewal project is the new space for La Cúpula panoramic restaurant, run by the prestigious chef Rubén Cabrera (winner of the III Spanish Cooks Contest, representing Canary Islands), a space that once was an open terrace, is now a luxurious restaurant with unbeatable sea sights to Fabañé beach, thanks to Comenza GlassFit SV-1301 system, installed next to a large perimeter window.
Comenza stainless steel posts systems R-CONCEPT: CABLE were chosen for the outdoor areas of the pool and the new spa building.
See more pictures of this project.

FOREL developed and upgraded its Automatic Profile Bender (ART. PBA632) to cater to different needs and typologies of material.
Warm Edge insulating properties, which bring important economical savings, are the reasons for the growing success of this kind of profile. As glassworkers know, the bending of plastic profile is an extremely delicate operation which requires precision and attention.
FOREL - The Profile Bender offers the Arm to the Warm Edge
FOREL developed and upgraded its Automatic Profile Bender (ART. PBA632) to cater to different needs and typologies of material. The Profile Bender can now support the profile during the processing, thanks to the special Smart Arm (an exclusive FOREL patent). The arm works to avoid the risk of breaks or deformations when working with larger sizes.
This solution offers high productivity, quality and no risks of damage to the material.
FOREL - The Profile Bender offers the Arm to the Warm Edge
Specific improvements have been developed to obtain a better bending process which offers two different results:

  • The classical internal fold;
  • An internal fold of 90°, visually identical to the “corner keys” (but without thermal dispersion in the corner) or to the welding junction (but with faster production).

The calibration of the bending is managed by a software, which ensures a complete control and precision of the angle.



SolarWindow Technologies, Inc. announced that the company has now filed more than 90 U.S. and international patents and trademarks for protecting its brand identities, products, services, processes, and materials.
SolarWindow Technologies, Inc., developer of liquid transparent coatings that turn ordinary glass into electricity-generating windows for skyscrapers and buildings, announced that the company has now filed more than 90 U.S. and international patents and trademarks for protecting its brand identities, products, services, processes, and materials.
The SolarWindow intellectual property portfolio covers electricity-generating liquid coatings for windows, automobiles, aircraft, mission-critical military applications, and more.
Announced recently, SolarWindow was awarded its first-ever advanced materials manufacturing Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO).
SolarWindow was awarded the CRADA after submitting a proposal outlining its process technologies and fabrication methods to the DOE’s Roll-to-Roll Advanced Materials Manufacturing Consortium, led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The CRADA will be carried out with the DOE by SolarWindow, ANL, and NREL.
“Our first commercial target market is electricity-generating windows that could turn entire skyscrapers into vertical power generators,” stated Mr. John Conklin, President and CEO of SolarWindow Technologies, Inc.
“Our business team has already negotiated and entered into numerous commercial collaborations with raw materials suppliers, service and technology providers, and even a glass fabrication facility with the goal of manufacturing SolarWindow™ products. While our engineers and scientists have continued to aggressively advance our technical capabilities, recently setting a new company record for power production, our legal and technical teams have strategically strengthened our portfolio of patents and trademark filings.”
Targeting the estimated 5.6 million U.S. commercial buildings, which consume almost $150 billion in electricity annually, the company’s transparent electricity-generating windows could reduce energy costs by up to 50% and could achieve a one-year financial payback for building owners, the industry’s fastest financial return, according to independently-validated power and financial modeling.
The expansive SolarWindow intellectual property portfolio encompasses product development, commercial manufacturing, licensing, sales, and services. The filings cover a variety of classes, including coatings, windows, glass, flexible electricity-generating materials, solar panels, cells, modules, and others.

  • The 90-plus SolarWindow International and U.S. patent and trademark filings include:
    • Electricity generating windows that can:
    • self-tint to darker or lighter shades, based on user preferences;
    • power various devices such as smart sensors for delivering data to intelligent energy management systems in buildings
  • Electricity-generating coatings for:
    • powering mission-critical systems on military and commercial aircraft;
    • providing emergency power to pilots;
    • application to various three-dimensional objects;
    • thin and flexible surfaces, using various application methods;
  • Processes and the processing of SolarWindow™ device architectures;
  • Enhancements to SolarWindow™ device architecture; and
  • Improvements to various SolarWindow™ module performance; among others.

The company’s scientists, engineers, and attorneys continually identify, develop and pursue intellectual property with the objective of providing the high commercial value and strategic position when compared to other technologies. High-value patents and trademarks are actively developed while legacy assets are either repurposed to add value, or eventually retired.
SolarWindow Technologies, Inc. claims rights in all of its trademarks and service marks, and actively works to establish, protect, monitor, and enforce its intellectual property rights in its trademarks and service marks through various intellectual property strategies including federal registration, state registration, and/or establishing common law rights.


High-performance curtain walling, windows and doors from leading aluminium systems manufacturer, Metal Technology, have helped shaped iQ-style student living at Elgin Place on Glasgow’s Bath Street.
The development, named from the church which previously occupied the site, offers 330 rooms in a variety of configurations over 14 floors with a large ground floor retail space. The building incorporates social spaces, including a rooftop bar, snugs, gym, gaming rooms and a creative studio.
Metal Technology System 17 was used in three variants for the curtain walling screens and rooflight: Silicone pointed, flat cap and capped. A special concealed vent was utilised to complement the ascetic design. Systems 4-35Hi+ casement and 5-35Hi+ tilt-and-turn windows and System 5-20D doors were also used throughout the building.
Metal Technology in action at Elgin PlaceWorking with the fabricator, Metal Technology developed a flat cap solution for the curtain walling from levels 7 to 13, this met the architects design requirements while offering a value engineered alternative to their silicone pointed system.
Used in isolation or in an integrated fashion, as in Elgin Place, Metal Technology systems provide reliable structural integrity, weather performance, thermal enhancement and security, together with creative and design freedom to deliver superb results.



Innovative decorative design meets practical solution Maple help design, fabricate and install architectural ‘fins’ to award-winning Oastler Building in Huddersfield.


When the University of Huddersfield planned a new building for their city campus, the brief featured one ambitious requirement. “We wanted to make a bold, confident statement that said ‘We are the university’,” explained Vice Chancellor Professor Bob Cryan. “We wanted something architecturally striking when students and parents come to the campus, I’m looking to give them the ‘wow’ factor.”
The Oastler Building, which opened in May 2017, is the new home for Huddersfield’s Law School and its School of Music, Humanities and Media. Although it is just the latest in a series of large construction projects for the university over the last ten years, it was particularly important because of its prominent position.
Responding to the brief, architects AHR created what they called a ‘beacon’ for the university a six-storey, fully glazed, curved face to the building. However, while large areas of glass can look visually stunning, they are not without their practical challenges…
Maple help deliver ‘wow’ factor for new Univesity of Huddersfield Building


Modern architecture for schools or offices and universities often incorporates large areas of glazing to provide more natural daylight and create a feeling of space inside. However, there can often be a downside, with heat and glare from direct sunlight making life uncomfortable for occupants.
Maple have years of experience in designing, manufacturing and installing systems that reduce this ‘solar gain’. But, for this project, that wasn’t our biggest challenge.
Architects AHR envisaged a brise soleil system as an integral and iconic feature of their design. So we worked with the architects, main contractors Morgan Sindall and the project’s glazing contractors to arrive at a solution that was both practical and striking.
In fact, the main challenge was to develop a shading solution that would significantly enhance the aesthetic of the six-storey, curved glazed frontage of the Oastler Building. The end result was a series of innovative vertical fins that provide that ‘wow’ factor the client wanted.
Designing and manufacturing 21 sets of paired fins (with 44,000 rivets) was only the start of a technical challenge. Limited access meant that each fin had to be ‘blind lifted’ into place with a specialist crane – while keeping a busy nearby road open (and complying with stringent health and safety regulations).
The fins were heavy and specialist fixings were required. Accuracy was key and it took four weeks to align all the brackets within a plus/ minus 1mm tolerance.
Maple help deliver ‘wow’ factor for new Univesity of Huddersfield Building


Although initially envisaged as a practical response to a real challenge, our solar screening solution became an integral part of the design of the Oastler Building.
Working in partnership with the architects and main contractors, Maple designed, supplied and installed 42 vertical brise soleil fins around the oval face of the building. Internally, we described them as ‘hockey sticks’ – large fins in pairs of 21 different sizes that appear to loop over the top of the building and extend downwards over the six-storey facade.
Constructed from aluminium, the fins are anodised in Anolok 543 for protection and also to provide a solid contrast to the light-reflecting glazing. “The materials we use lend themselves to long spans but these are still very large fins that require specialist fixings to cope with all wind and load-bearing issues,” said Maple’s Projects Director, Jay McGrath.
“The architectural hockey sticks are an iconic feature on the university campus, but just as important are the things you don’t see – which along with the fins themselves were designed, manufactured and tested at our Stockport factory.” Steel brackets run through the fins and connect to pre-installed plates on the building structure at every floor level.
It’s this combination of aesthetic appeal and technical excellence that would lead to wide acclaim…
Maple help deliver ‘wow’ factor for new Univesity of Huddersfield Building


The new Oastler Building was opened by HRH The Duke of York in May 2017. Almost immediately, it was picking up awards. Just a few weeks after the Duke, who is also the university’s Chancellor, was paying tribute the ‘inter-connectivity’ of the project’s multidisciplinary team, the landmark building was named Best Educational Building at the 2017 LABC West Yorkshire Building Excellence Awards.
The regional awards are hosted by Local Authority Building Control and are unlike other events that simply reward aesthetic appeal. The LABC judges look for craftsmanship, innovative products and creative solutions to technical problems – as well as excellent relationships between architects, contractors, suppliers and building control officers.
“We’re very proud to have been involved in an award winning project” added Maple’s Jay McGrath. “It’s a project that was intended to have the ‘wow’ factor and that’s what was delivered. The iconic building is now widely recognised within the architectural profession.”
Our architectural fins were designed to be a key decorative feature of the building. Although preventing glare or solar gain wasn’t part of the requirement – the fins do provide some solar screening for the new departments and modern conference and meeting facilities.
They’re a great example of how by working closely with architects, and understanding their design requirements, Maple can elevate practical shading systems to integral elements of a building aesthetic.
Professor Cryan claimed the building was already a local icon. He said: “We have bestowed on Huddersfield a 21st century structure that can stand alongside the great 19th century buildings that expressed the civic pride felt by our Victorian forebears.”